The **progress measures** aim to capture the progress that pupils make from the end of Key Stage 1 to the end of primary school. They are a type of value-added measure, which means that pupils’ results are compared to the actual achievements of other pupils nationally with similar prior attainment.

Individual pupil-level progress scores are calculated in comparison to other pupils nationally. For all state-funded pupils nationally, the average progress score will be zero.

A characteristic's progress score for English reading, English writing and maths is calculated as the average progress score for all pupils with that characteristic. This means that progress scores are presented as positive and negative numbers either side of zero.

- A score of zero means pupils with this characteristic, on average, did about as well at KS2 as other pupils with similar prior attainment nationally.
- A positive score means pupils with this characteristic, on average, did better at KS2 than other pupils with similar prior attainment nationally.
- A negative score means pupils with this characteristic, on average, did not make as much progress by the end of KS2 as other pupils with similar prior attainment nationally. A negative progress score does not mean pupils made no progress, rather it means pupils with that characteristic made less progress than other pupils across England with similar results at the end of KS1.

This section looks at key stage 2 attainment and progress by gender, disadvantage, special educational need (SEN) status, first language, ethnicity and month of birth.

The figures for disadvantaged pupils first shown in this publication in September were provisional and did not include pupils in the care of a local authority unless they were eligible for free school meals during the last 6 years or ceased to be looked-after in the last year.

Numbers referred to in brackets are progress scores.

**Attainment and progress by gender**

Girls continue to outperform boys at the expected standard in all subjects in 2023, except for maths where boys performed slightly better (1 percentage point difference). In reading, 76% of girls met the expected standard down from 80% in 2022, whilst 70% of boys met the expected standard, unchanged from 2022.

The biggest attainment gap between boys and girls remains in the writing teacher assessment at 13 percentage points.

In reading, writing and maths (combined) in 2023, 63% of girls met the expected standard compared to 56% of boys, a gap of 7 percentage points, down from 9 percentage points in 2022. This narrowing of the gender gap is due to an increase in attainment in reading, writing and maths (combined) for boys, and a slight decrease in attainment (when comparing unrounded data) in this combined measure for girls.

#### Attainment at the higher standard

Among individual subjects at the higher standard, the gender gap has fallen in reading from 10 percentage points in 2022 to 5 percentage points in 2023. This is due to boys attainment increasing by 4 percentage points, whilst girls attainment fell by 2 percentage points. In maths, the gender gap increased from 5 percentage points in 2022 to 6 percentage points in 2023. This is due to boys attainment in maths at the higher standard increasing by 2 percentage points, whilst girls attainment at the higher standard increased by 1 percentage point. In writing, the attainment for both boys and girls increased, however, the gender gap decreased by 1 percentage point.

In 2023, 9% of girls met the higher standard in reading, writing and maths (combined), unchanged 2022 but down from 13% in 2019. Among boys, 7% met the higher standard, up from 6% in 2022 but down from 9% in 2019. This means in 2023, there is a gender gap of 2 percentage points at the higher standard, down from 3 percentage points in 2022.

Progress made between key stage 1 and key stage 2 showed a similar pattern to attainment, with girls making more progress relative to boys in reading and writing. Boys made more progress in maths.

In 2023, girls made more progress in reading (0.29) and writing (0.87) and less progress in maths (-0.77). In contrast, boys made less progress in reading (-0.21), and writing (-0.76) and the more progress in maths (0.82).

### Disadvantage gap index

The disadvantage gap index summarises the attainment gap between disadvantaged pupils and all other pupils.

The gap index is more resilient to changes to assessment than attainment threshold measures and therefore offers greater comparability between years. The index ranks all pupils in the country and assesses the difference in the average position of disadvantaged pupils and others. A disadvantage gap of zero would indicate that there is no difference between the average performance of disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged pupils. We measure whether the disadvantage gap is getting larger or smaller over time. See the methodology for further information.

The disadvantage gap index has reduced from 3.23 in 2022 to 3.21 in 2023.

The 2023 statistics are now based on revised data. The figures first shown in this publication in September were provisional and did not include pupils in the care of a local authority unless they were eligible for free school meals during the last 6 years or ceased to be looked-after in the last year.

The disadvantage gap index had reduced between 2011 and 2018 - indicating that the attainment gap between disadvantaged pupils and their peers was becoming smaller - before remaining at a similar level between 2018 and 2019 and increasing in 2022 to the highest level since 2012.

### Attainment and progress by disadvantage status

Disadvantaged pupils are ordinarily defined as: those who were registered as eligible for free school meals at any point in the last six years, children looked after by a local authority or have left local authority care in England and Wales through adoption, a special guardianship order, a residence order or a child arrangements order.

In 2023, 30% of pupils at the end of key stage 2 were considered disadvantaged.

In reading, writing and maths (combined), 44% of disadvantaged pupils met the expected standard in 2023 compared to 66% of other pupils, a difference of 22 percentage points. This is a decrease from 23 percentage points in 2022.

In 2023, 3% of disadvantaged pupils met the higher standard in reading, writing and maths (combined), unchanged from 2022. Among other pupils, 10% met the higher standard, up from 9% in 2022. This means that the attainment gap at the higher standard has slightly increased, from 6 percentage points in 2022 to 7 percentage points in 2023.

Attainment in reading has fallen compared to 2022 for both disadvantaged pupils and other pupils. Attainment had increased from 2019 to 2022 for non-disadvantaged pupils, whilst it has now decreased back to 2019 levels. For the disadvantaged group, attainment had remained the same between 2019 and 2022, and has fallen in 2023. Attainment in writing and maths has increased for both groups since 2022.

The disadvantage gap in 2023 compared to 2022 is similar across subjects, ranging from 18 percentage points in reading and science to 20 percentage points in maths.

Disadvantaged pupils made less progress in each of reading, writing and maths than all other pupils with similar prior attainment. Disadvantaged pupils made the least progress in maths (-1.04), whilst those pupils not known to be disadvantaged made most progress in maths (0.51).

### Attainment and progress by Special Educational Need (SEN) status

In 2023, 20% of pupils at the end of key stage 2 had a special educational need (SEN). Pupils with SEN either have an Education, Health and Care Plan (EHCP) or receive SEN support. In 2023, 5% of all pupils had an EHCP and 16% were on SEN support.

In 2023, 20% of pupils with SEN met the expected standard in reading, writing and maths (combined), compared with 18% of pupils with SEN in 2022. Of those pupils on SEN support, 24% met the expected standard in reading, writing and maths (combined), up from 21% in 2022, whilst 8% of those pupils with an Education, Health and Care plan met the standard, up from 7% in 2022.

Pupils with SEN made the least progress in writing (-2.18) and the most progress in reading (-1.42), though all subjects had negative progress scores. For those with a EHC plan, least progress was made in writing (-4.41) and the most progress was made in maths (-4.12). For those on SEN support, like the overall group, least progress was made in writing (-1.53) and most progress was made in reading (-0.58).

### Attainment and progress by first language

In 2023, 22% of pupils at the end of key stage 2 had a first language other than English.

In 2023, 60% of pupils with first language other than English met the expected standard in reading, writing and maths (combined), down from 61% in 2022 and from 64% in 2019. Among pupils with English as their first language, 60% met the expected standard, up from 58% in 2022 but below 2019 attainment (65%).

Attainment in reading has fallen since 2022 for both pupils with English and a language other than English as their first language at the expected standard. Attainment for pupils with English as their first language fell from 75% in 2022 to 74% in 2023. Before the pandemic in 2019, this figure was also 74%. For pupils with a first language other than English attainment fell from 73% in 2022 to 70% in 2023. This figure was 70% in 2019. The gap in reading attainment between pupils with English as a first language and a first language other than English is now at 4 percentage points.

In both writing and maths, attainment has increased for both groups since 2022.** **In writing, attainment increased from 70% to 72% among pupils with English as their first language and from 70% to 71% among pupils with a first language other than English. In maths, attainment increased from 75% to 77% among pupils with English as their first language and from 71% to 72% among pupils with a first language other than English. Attainment for both groups in writing and maths remains below pre-pandemic levels.

At the higher standard, 9% of pupils with a first language other than English met the higher standard in reading, writing and maths (combined), up from 8% in 2022 but down from 11% in 2019. Among pupils with English as their first language, 8% achieved the higher standard in 2023, up from 7% in 2022 but below 2019 attainment (11%).

Pupils with a language other than English as their first language made more progress than their peers at a similar starting point in reading (0.57), writing (1.28) and maths (2.26). Pupils with English as their first language made less progress than their peers at a similar starting point in reading (-0.09), writing (-0.26) and maths (-0.50).

### Attainment and progress by ethnicity

Attainment at the end of key stage 2 varies by ethnicity.

As in 2022, Indian pupils are the highest performing group in all of reading, writing and maths (73% of pupils met the expected standard). The second highest performing group is White and Asian pupils (70%), a change from 2022 when this was Chinese pupils, who were the third highest performing group in 2023 (69%).

Gypsy/Roma pupils are the lowest performing group (18% met the expected standard in all of reading, writing and maths), followed by Traveller of Irish heritage pupils (21%).

Following feedback from users, the Office for National Statistics updated their guidelines on ethnic groups (opens in a new tab). We have therefore included Chinese pupils in the Asian ethnic group in this publication since 2022. This was a change from previous years when Chinese pupils were reported separately. This change has been backdated to 2016 to allow comparisons over time. Figures for Chinese pupils only are still available via the table tool (within subject 'Key stage 2 attainment by pupil characteristics') and the data file ‘ks2_national_pupil_characteristics_2016_to_2023_revised.csv.’

Chinese pupils made the most progress in reading (1.72), writing (1.87) and maths (5.25). Gypsy/Roma pupils made the least progress in reading (-1.59), whilst Traveller of Irish heritage pupils made the least progress in writing (-1.61) and maths (-2.34).

**Attainment and progress by month of birth**

In 2023, pupils born in September and October were the highest achieving group in all of reading, writing and maths (combined), 66% of these two groups met the expected standard, unchanged from 2022 for September born and up from 65% in 2022 for October born.

Pupils born in August were the lowest achieving group, 53% of this group met the expected standard in reading, writing and maths (combined), up from 51% in 2022.

Among the individual subjects of reading, writing and maths, pupils born in September and October were also the highest achieving, whilst pupils born in August were the lowest achieving.

Pupils born in August made the most progress in reading (0.54), writing (0.49) and maths (0.78). Pupils born in September made the least progress in reading (-0.42), writing (-0.29) and maths (-0.52). This follows a similar pattern to progress in previous years and suggests that month of birth has a reduced effect on attainment over time.