Academic Year 2021/22

Key stage 2 attainment

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  1. Added national level first language breakdown and corrected national level SEN, FSM, disadvantage and ethnicity breakdowns in underlying data file 'Key stage 2 attainment by region, local authority and pupil characteristics' file.

  2. Updated with revised data and to include progress measures.

  3. Corrected the 2011 disadvantaged gap index figure.

  4. Updated with key stage 2 attainment by prior attainment.

Introduction

This publication provides revised attainment and progress statistics for key stage 2 national curriculum assessments. It is an update to the provisional statistics published on 6 September 2022 and extends the Key stage 2: National headlines statistics published on 5 July 2022.

It includes statistics for pupils in schools in England:

  • at national level, broken down by the following pupil characteristics: gender, disadvantage, free school meal eligibility, ethnicity, special educational need status, first language and month of birth;
  • at national level, broken down by the following school characteristics: school type, school phase, cohort size and school religious character;
  • at regional and local authority level, broken down by gender;
  • at local authority level, broken down by pupil characteristics. 

Some of these breakdowns are not discussed in the text but can be accessed via the table tool or downloading the data files.

All gaps and percentage point differences are calculated from unrounded figures.


Headline facts and figures - 2021/22

These statistics cover the attainment of year 6 pupils who took assessments in summer 2022. These pupils experienced disruption to their learning during the pandemic, particularly at the end of year 4 and in year 5. 

These statistics have now been updated with revised data. 

In individual subjects, attainment increased slightly in reading and fell in all other subjects compared to 2019 at both the expected and higher standard.

75% of pupils met the expected standard in reading, up from 73% in 2019. 28% of pupils reached the higher standard in reading, up from 27% in 2019. 

71% of pupils met the expected standard in maths, down from 79% in 2019. 23% of pupils reached the higher standard in maths, down from 27% in 2019. 

69% of pupils met the expected standard in writing, down from 78% in 2019. 13% of pupils reached the higher standard in writing, down from 20% in 2019. 

Attainment in reading, writing and maths (combined) has decreased compared to 2019 at both the expected and higher standard.

The Department for Education considers meeting the expected standard in reading, writing and maths to be key for success in secondary school and beyond. Therefore, in addition to attainment in individual subjects, we report on the proportion of pupils who meet the expected standard in all three of these subjects.

59% of pupils met the expected standard in reading, writing and maths, down from 65% in 2019. 

7% of pupils met the higher standard in reading, writing and maths, down from 11% in 2019.

The disadvantage gap index has increased from 2.91 in 2019 to 3.23 in 2022. 

The disadvantage gap index reduced between 2011 and 2018 - indicating that the gap in attainment between disadvantaged pupils and other pupils was becoming smaller - before remaining at a similar level between 2018 and 2019. The index has increased in 2022 to the highest level since 2012, suggesting that disruption to learning during the COVID-19 pandemic has had a greater impact on disadvantaged pupils.  

Attainment has fallen compared to 2019 for both disadvantaged pupils and other pupils at the expected and higher standards in all subjects except for reading. However, the attainment of disadvantaged pupils has fallen further than for other pupils, increasing the disadvantage attainment gap.

In reading, attainment remained stable for disadvantaged pupils at 62% and increased from 78% to 80% for other pupils. In writing, attainment fell from 68% to 55% for disadvantaged pupils and from 83% to 75% for other pupils. In maths, attainment fell from 67% to 56% for disadvantaged pupils and from 84% to 78% for other pupils. 

Attainment fell among both girls and boys in all subjects except reading, however the fall was slightly larger for girls. Girls continue to outperform boys in all subjects except maths.

55% of boys met the expected standard in reading, writing and maths (combined), down from 60% in 2019. 63% of girls met the expected standard in all three subjects, down from 70% in 2019.

Girls made more progress than boys in reading and writing, while boys made more progress in maths. 

In 2022, girls had positive progress scores in reading (0.86) and writing (0.89) and a negative progress score in maths (-0.79). In contrast, boys had negative progress scores in reading (-0.75), -0.77 and writing (-0.77) and a positive progress score (0.83) in maths. 

Attainment fell among pupils with English as their first language and pupils with a first language other than English in all subjects except reading, however the fall was larger for pupils with English as a first language.

61% of pupils whose first language is known or believed to be other than English met the expected standard in reading, writing and maths (combined), down from 64% in 2019. 58% of pupils whose first language is known or believed to be English met the expected standard in all three subjects, down from 65% in 2019. 

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Open data

Browse and download individual open data files from this release in our data catalogue


Guidance

Learn more about the data files used in this release using our online guidance


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All supporting files

All supporting files from this release are listed for individual download below:

List of all supporting files

Data quality

These statistics update and extend those published in the Key stage 2 (provisional) statistics in September.  These statistics are now revised. 

Impact of missing results on data quality

In 2022, there were unexpected difficulties during the collection and processing of key stage 2 assessment data. As a result, there were larger volumes of missing data than in previous years for the provisional statistics. Additional checks were carried out by analysts to ensure the quality of the statistics. Levels of missing data for this revised release are similar to the revised release in 2019. Test and teacher assessment volumes in 2022 compared to revised data in 2019 are summarised in the table below. These figures are based on the data extract used for these statistics, which was taken on 16 October 2022.

Volumes of test and teacher assessment data in revised 2019 and 2022 data (%)
 20192022
Reading test100100
Maths test100100
Grammar, punctuation and spelling test10099.9
Writing teacher assessment99.899.7
Science teacher assessment99.899.7

The table below summarise the rates of missing data by key pupil and school characteristics that are related to attainment. 

Rate of missing data by assessment in revised 2022 statistics by pupil and school characteristics
 Reading testMaths testGrammar, punctuation and spelling testWriting teacher assessmentScience teacher assessment
Disadvantaged pupils000.10.30.3
Other pupils000.10.20.2
Pupils with SEN00.10.20.60.6
Pupils without SEN000.10.10.1
Pupils in mainstream schools0.100.10.20.2
Pupils in special schools000.12.92.9
Rate of missing data for local authority

West Sussex is now the only local authority with high levels of missing data for teacher assessment, defined as missing more than 1.5% of data. 

Local authority codeLocal authority nameWriting teacher assessmentScience teacher assessment
938West Sussex1.81.8

The methodology used to create these statistics remains the same as in previous years. The treatment of missing data in these statistics differs by assessment type (test or teacher assessment) and the level of data (national or regional/local authority):

  • National level statistics: missing data is excluded from the measures in all subjects.
  • Regional and local authority level statistics: missing data for test subjects (reading, maths and grammar, punctuation and spelling) is excluded from the measures. For teacher assessment data (writing and science), pupils with missing results are included in the measures as not meeting the expected standard.

Further detail on the methodology used to create these statistics can be found in the accompanying methodology document.

Measures for test subjects (reading, maths and grammar, punctuation and spelling) are considered of sufficient quality at national and regional level as the rates of missing data for these subjects is low and similar across pupil and school characteristics. 

As in previous years, there have been small changes between provisional and revised data, but these changes are similar in scale and direction across pupil and school characteristics. 

Measures for teacher assessment subjects (writing and science) are considered of sufficient quality at national level. At regional and local authority level, users are advised to exercise caution when using these measures for West Sussex (including measures for all of reading, writing and maths). This is because West Sussex is missing 1.8% of both writing teacher assessment and science teacher assessment. 

Attainment in reading, writing and maths (combined)

The Department for Education considers meeting the expected standard in reading, writing and maths to be key for success in secondary school and beyond. Therefore, we report on the proportion of pupils who meet the expected standard in all three of these subjects.

In 2022, 59% of pupils met the expected standard in all of reading, writing and maths, down from 65% in 2019. At the higher standard, 7% of pupils met this in all of reading, writing and maths, down from 11% in 2019. 

Attainment in all of reading, writing and maths is not directly comparable to some earlier years (2016 and 2017) because of changes to writing teacher assessment frameworks in 2018. This is signified by the dotted lines on the chart. The dashed lines between 2019 and 2022 signify the break in the assessments due to the pandemic, though 2019 and 2022 data is comparable. 

This decrease in attainment in all of reading, writing and maths is due to a fall in attainment in writing and maths (see ‘Attainment in individual subjects’ section).

Earlier this year, the Department announced a Levelling Up mission for 90% of pupils to meet the expected standard in reading, writing and maths at the end of key stage 2 by 2030. 

Attainment in individual subjects

Attainment at the expected standard

In the reading test, 75% of pupils met the expected standard in 2022, up from 73% in 2019.

In the writing teacher assessment, 69% of pupils met the expected standard, down from 78% in 2019. Attainment in writing is not directly comparable to some earlier years (2016 and 2017) because of changes to writing teacher assessment frameworks in 2018. This is signified by the dotted lines on the chart. 

In the maths test, 71% of pupils met the expected standard, down from 79% in 2019.

Among reading, writing and maths, attainment is now highest in reading. This is a reversal from previous years (2016 to 2019) when attainment was lowest in this subject. Of these three subjects, attainment is now lowest in writing.

In grammar, punctuation and spelling, 72% of pupils met the expected standard, down from 78% in 2019. This is the lowest figure since new assessments were introduced in 2016, when 73% of pupils met the expected standard.

In science teacher assessment, 79% of pupils met the expected standard in 2022, down from 83% in 2019. Attainment in science is not directly comparable to some earlier years (2016, 2017 and 2018) because of changes to science teacher assessment frameworks in 2019. 

Among all subjects, the largest fall in attainment compared to 2019 was in writing (9 percentage points), followed by maths (7 percentage points), grammar, punctuation and spelling (6 percentage points) and science (4 percentage points). 

The dashed lines between 2019 and 2022 signify the break in the assessments due to the pandemic, though 2019 and 2022 data is comparable. 

Attainment at the higher standard

In reading, 28% of pupils met the higher standard in 2022, up from 27% in 2019. 

In writing teacher assessment, 13% of pupils met the higher standard, down from 20% in 2019. Attainment in writing is not directly comparable to some earlier years (2016 and 2017) because of changes to writing teacher assessment frameworks in 2018. This is signified by the dotted lines on the chart. 

In maths, 23% of pupils met the higher standard, down from 27% in 2019. 

Among reading, writing and maths, attainment at the higher standard is highest in reading. From 2016 to 2018, reading was also highest. In 2019, reading and maths were highest at 27%. Attainment of the higher standard in these three subjects remains lowest in writing. 

In grammar, punctuation and spelling, 28% of pupils met the higher standard, down from 36% in 2019. 

There is no higher standard for science.

The dashed lines on the chart between 2019 and 2022 signify the break in the assessments due to the pandemic, though 2019 and 2022 data is comparable. 

Average scaled scores in reading, maths and grammar, punctuation and spelling

We use scaled scores to report the results of tests so we can make accurate comparisons of performance over time.

In reading, the average scaled score is 105, up from 104 in 2019. 

In maths, the average scaled score is 104, down from 105 in 2019.

In grammar, punctuation and spelling, the average scaled score is 105, down from 106 in 2019.

The average scaled score is the mean scaled score of all pupils awarded a scaled score. It gives us a measure of the typical performance of a pupil taking the tests. It is affected by the performance of pupils at all points in the range of scores. By contrast, the percentage of pupils achieving the expected standard focuses on the proportion of pupils above or below one particular score (100).

Key stage 2 attainment by prior attainment

This section looks at key stage 2 attainment in reading and writing by prior attainment in phonics. Pupils with an eligible KS2 reading test result and either a valid year 1 or year 2 phonics record are included. 95% of pupils with an eligible KS2 reading test result successfully matched to either a valid year 1 or year 2 phonics record.

Key stage 2 reading attainment by prior attainment in the phonics screening check

As in previous years, pupils who performed well in the phonics screening check went on to do well in the key stage 2 reading test. In 2022, 85% of pupils who met the phonics standard in year 1 in 2017 met the expected standard in reading at the end of key stage 2, unchanged from 2019. Of those pupils who met the expected standard in phonics by the end of year 2 in 2018, but not in year 1, 51% went on to meet the expected standard in reading at the end of key stage 2. This was down from 56% in 2019. Of those pupils who did not meet the phonics standard by the end of year 2 in 2018, 18% went on to meet the expected standard in reading at the end of key stage 2. This was down from 23% in 2019. 

Key stage 2 writing attainment by prior attainment in the phonics screening check

For the first time we have also published statistics looking at the relationship between attainment in the key stage 2 writing teacher assessment and prior phonics attainment. In 2022, 81% of pupils who met the phonics standard in year 1 in 2017 met the expected standard in writing at the end of KS2, down from 91% in 2019. Of those pupils who met the expected standard in phonics by the end of year 2 in 2018, but not in year 1, 38% went on to meet the expected standard in writing at the end of KS2. This was down from 62% in 2019. Of those pupils who did not meet the phonics standard by the end of year 2 in 2018, 11% went on to meet the expected standard in writing at the end of KS2. This was down from 23% in 2019. 

Key stage 2 attainment by prior attainment in key stage 1

Pupils are categorised based on their key stage 1 attainment as having high, medium or low prior attainment and these groups are not of equal size. Definitions for high, medium and low prior attainment can be found in the Primary accountability guidance

Pupils who performed well in key stage 1 went on to do well in key stage 2 reading, writing and maths (combined). In 2022, 93% of pupils who had high attainment in key stage 1 in 2018 met the expected standard in reading, writing and maths at the end of key stage 2. Of those pupils who were middle attainers in key stage 1, 60% met the expected standard in reading, writing and maths at the end of key stage 2. Of those who were low attainers in key stage 1, 11% went on to meet the expected standard in reading, writing and maths at the end of key stage 2.  

Similar patterns are seen when looking at individual subject attainment in reading, writing and maths at the end of key stage 2 by prior attainment in key stage 1. 

At the higher standard, 21% of those who were high attainers in key stage 1 went on to meet this in reading, writing and maths (combined) in 2022. Of those pupils who were middle prior attainers in key stage 1, 1% met the higher standard in 2022. Of those who were low attainers in key stage 1, 0% met the higher standard at key stage 2. 

Key stage 2 Transition Matrices and Ready Reckoner tools

We have moved our transition matrices and ready reckoner tools into look up tables to make them more accessible. The files are available in the supporting files section of this publication. For guidance on how to use the files, please see the annex F in the methodology section.

Transition Matrices

Transition matrices show KS2 pupil outcome distributions in reading, writing, and maths for 2022, by prior attainment group.

KS2 2022 transition matrices are available as a single data file in the supporting files section.

Ready Reckoners

The ready reckoner tools are available for the sole purpose of allowing the user to calculate their schools progress score in reading, writing and maths. Attainment data for all pupils at a school, including 2022 KS2 outcomes and prior attainment for those pupils at KS1 in 2019, will be required to calculate a schools' progress score.

KS2 2022 ready reckoners are available as a collection of five data files in the supporting files section.

For more details on prior attainment group assignment, or on KS2 outcomes please see the ‘Calculating a school’s progress scores’ section of our Primary school accountability in 2022: technical guide.

Attainment and progress by pupil characteristics

This section looks at key stage 2 attainment by gender, disadvantage, special education need (SEN) status, first language, month of birth and ethnicity. Further information is available via the table tool and data files, including attainment by free school meal eligibility. 

Note that the statistics on disadvantage in this publication update the provisional statistics by including pupils in the care of the local authority for a day or more in the last year unless they were eligible for free school meals during the last 6 years, or they have ceased to be looked after in the last year. 

Attainment and progress by gender

Attainment has fallen compared to 2019 for both boys and girls in all subjects except for reading, where attainment at the expected standard increased from 69% in 2019 to 70% in 2022 for boys and increased from 78% to 80% for girls. In writing, attainment fell from 72% to 63% for boys and from 85% to 76% for girls. In maths, attainment fell from 79% to 71% for girls and to a lesser extent for boys, from 78% to 72%.

Girls outperformed boys in all subjects in 2022 except for maths, where boys performed better than girls at both the expected and higher standard. Among individual subjects, the biggest attainment gap between boys and girls remains in writing at 14 percentage points (in favour of girls). 

In reading, writing and maths (combined), 63% of girls met the expected standard compared to 55% of boys, a gap of 9 percentage points, down from 10 percentage points in 2019. This slight narrowing of the gender gap is due to a slightly larger fall in attainment for girls than boys: the percentage of pupils meeting the expected standard fell by 7 percentage points for girls and 6 percentage points for boys compared to 2019. 

In 2022, 9% of girls achieved the higher standard in reading, writing and maths (combined), down from 13% in 2019. Among boys, 6% achieved the higher standard, down from 9% in 2019. 

Progress scores showed a similar pattern to attainment, with girls making more progress relative to boys in reading and writing. Boys made more progress in maths. 

Disadvantage gap index 

The disadvantage gap index reduced between 2011 and 2018 (indicating that the attainment gap between disadvantaged pupils and other pupils was becoming smaller) before remaining at a similar level between 2018 and 2019. The disadvantaged gap index increased from 2.91 in 2019 to 3.23 in 2022, increasing to the highest level since 2012. This suggests that disruption to learning during the COVID-19 pandemic has had a greater impact on disadvantaged pupils. 

The disadvantage gap index summarises the attainment gap between disadvantaged pupils and all other pupils

The gap index is more resilient to changes to assessment and therefore offers greater comparability between years. The index ranks all pupils in the country. A disadvantage gap of zero would indicate that there is no difference between the average performance of disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged pupils. We measure whether the disadvantage gap is getting larger or smaller over time.

Comparisons are made by ordering pupil scores in reading and maths assessments at end of key stage 2 and assessing the difference in the average position of disadvantaged pupils and others. The mean rank of pupils in the disadvantaged and other pupils groups are subtracted from one another and multiplied up by a factor of 20 to give a value between -10 and +10 (where 0 indicates an equal distribution of scores).

The 2022 statistics are now based on revised data. The figures first shown in this publication in September were provisional and did not include pupils in the care of a local authority unless they were eligible for free school meals during the last 6 years or ceased to be looked-after in the last year. 

The dashed line between 2019 and 2022 signifies the break in the assessments due to the pandemic, though 2019 and 2022 data is comparable. 

Attainment and progress by disadvantage status

In 2022, 30% of pupils at the end of key stage 2 were considered disadvantaged.

Attainment has fallen compared to 2019 for both disadvantaged pupils and other pupils at the expected and higher standards in all subjects except for reading. However, the attainment of disadvantaged pupils has fallen further than for other pupils, increasing the disadvantage attainment gap. In writing, attainment fell from 68% to 55% for disadvantaged pupils and from 83% to 75% for other pupils. In maths, attainment fell from 67% to 56% for disadvantaged pupils and from 84% to 78% for other pupils. In reading, attainment remained stable for disadvantaged pupils at 62% and increased from 78% to 80% for other pupils.

In reading, writing and maths (combined), 43% of disadvantaged pupils met the expected standard in 2022 compared to 66% of other pupils, a difference of 23 percentage points. This is an increase from 20 percentage points in 2019, when 51% of disadvantaged pupils and 71% of other pupils met the expected standard in reading, writing and maths.

In 2022, 3% of disadvantaged pupils achieved the higher standard in reading, writing and maths (combined), down from 5% in 2019.  Among other pupils, 9% achieved the higher standard, down from 13% in 2019. This means that, although the attainment at the higher standard of both groups decreased, there was a smaller fall for disadvantaged pupils (2 percentage points) than other pupils (4 percentage points).

Disadvantaged pupils make less progress in each of reading, writing and maths than all other pupils with similar prior attainment. Disadvantaged pupils made the least progress in maths (-1.15), whilst those pupils not known to be disadvantaged made most progress in maths (0.54). 

Definition of disadvantage

Disadvantaged pupils are ordinarily defined as: those who were registered as eligible for free school meals at any point in the last six years, children looked after by a local authority or have left local authority care in England and Wales through adoption, a special guardianship order, a residence order or a child arrangements order. 

As noted above, the statistics about disadvantage in this publication update the provisional statistics by including pupils in the care of a local authority. These pupils were included in the provisional release if they were also eligible for free school meals during the last 6 years or ceased to be looked-after in the last year.

Attainment and progress by Special Education Need status

In 2022, 20% of pupils at the end of key stage 2 had a special educational need (SEN). Pupils with SEN either have an Education, Health and Care Plan (EHCP) or receive SEN support. In 2022, 4% of all pupils had an EHCP and 15% were on SEN support.

In 2022, 18% of pupils with SEN reached the expected standard in reading, writing and maths (combined), compared with 22% of pupils SEN in 2019. Of those pupils on SEN support, 21% met the expected standard in reading, writing and maths (combined), whilst 7% of those pupils with an Education, Health and Care plan met the standard. 

Pupils with SEN made the least progress in writing (-2.10) and the most progress in maths (-1.54), though all were negative progress scores.  For those with a EHC plan, least progress was made in reading (-4.49) and the most progress was made in maths (-3.88). For those on SEN support, like the overall group, least progress was made in writing TA (-1.55) and most progress was made in maths (-0.91). 

Attainment and progress by first language 

In 2022, 21% of pupils at the end of key stage 2 had a first language other than English.

Attainment has fallen compared to 2019 for both pupils with English and a language other than English as their first language at the expected and higher standards in all subjects except for reading. However, the attainment of pupils with English as their first language has fallen further than for pupils with a first language other than English. In writing, attainment fell from 77% to 70% among pupils with a first language other than English and from 79% to 70% among pupils with English as their first language. In maths, attainment fell from 80% to 75% among pupils with a first language other than English and from 78% to 71% among pupils with English as their first language

As a result of these shifts in attainment, the attainment of pupils with a language other than English as their first language at the expected standard in reading, writing and maths (combined) is now greater than that of pupils with a first language of English. This follows several years of the attainment gap between these groups of pupils narrowing. In 2022, 58% of pupils with a first language other than English met the expected standard in all three subjects (down from 65% in 2019) compared to 61% among pupils with English as their first language (down from 64%).

In 2022, 8% of pupils with a language other than English as their first language achieved the higher standard in reading, writing and maths (combined), down from 11% in 2019.  Among pupils with English as their first language, 7% achieved the higher standard, down from 11% in 2019. 

Pupils with a language other than English as their first language made more progress than their peers at a similar starting point in reading (0.88), writing (1.16) and maths (2.01). Pupils with English as their first language made less progress than their peers at a similar starting point in reading (-0.16), writing (-0.22) and maths (-0.43). 

Attainment and progress by ethnicity

Attainment at the end of key stage 2 varies by pupil ethnicity.

Indian pupils are the highest achieving group in all of reading, writing and maths (74% of pupils met the expected standard), followed by Chinese pupils (70%). Gypsy/Roma pupils are the lowest performing group (15% met the expected standard in reading, writing and maths (combined), followed by Traveller of Irish heritage pupils (16%).

Chinese pupils made the most progress in reading (1.40), writing (2.02) and maths (4.68). Gypsy/Roma pupils made the least progress in reading (-2.79) and maths (-2.43), whilst traveller of Irish heritage pupils made the least progress in writing (-2.40). 

Following feedback from users, we have included Chinese pupils in the Asian ethnic group in this publication for the first time. This is a change from previous years when Chinese pupils were reported separately. This change has been backdated to 2016 to allow comparisons over time. Figures for Chinese pupils only are still available via the table tool (within subject 'Key stage 2 attainment by pupil characteristics') and the data file ‘ks2_national_pupil_characteristics_2016_to_2022_provisional.csv.’

Attainment and progress by month of birth

In 2022, as in previous years, pupils born in September were the highest achieving group in all of reading, writing and maths (66% met the expected standard), while pupils born in August were the lowest achieving group (51% met the expected standard in reading, writing and maths (combined)).

However, pupils born in August made the most progress in reading (0.54), writing (0.42) and maths (0.71). Pupils born in September made the least progress in reading (-0.32), writing (-0.28) and maths (-0.49). This follows a similar pattern to progress in 2019 and suggests that month of birth has a reduced effect on attainment over time.

Attainment and progress by school characteristics

Further information is available via the table tool and data files, including attainment by phase, school religious character and cohort size.

Attainment and progress by school type

There were 15,336 state-funded mainstream primary schools with key stage 2 results in 2022. 

Since 2016, there have been substantial changes to the makeup of school types in England. The proportion of LA maintained schools decreased from 82% in 2016 to 61% in 2022. There have been corresponding increases in the proportion of sponsored and converter academies to 11% and 27% respectively. It should be noted that the conversion of schools from one type to another means that the headline figures capture not only change in performance but also change in school type. While the number of free schools has increased to 174, free schools make up a very small proportion of schools. 

See the accompanying methodology and quality information document for details about different types of school. 

Similarly to 2019, attainment levels in mainstream academies and free schools as a group in 2022 is broadly similar to those in local authority maintained mainstream schools.

Among academies, converter academies had a broadly similar proportion of pupils meeting the expected standard as all state-funded mainstream schools. Attainment in sponsored academies is below the average for state-funded mainstream schools.

Pupils in free schools made more progress in reading and maths than pupils with similar prior attainment in other types of schools. Pupils in converter academies made more progress in writing than pupils with similar prior attainment in other types of schools.

Pupils in sponsored academies made less progress in reading and maths than pupils with similar prior attainment in other types of schools. 

Regional and local authority attainment and progress

Data quality

Users are advised to exercise caution when using writing and science teacher assessment measures, including reading, writing and maths (combined) measures for West Sussex. This is because 1.8% of writing teacher assessment and 1.8% of science teacher assessment is missing for this local authority. Please refer to the section on ‘Data quality’ for more information. 

Attainment and progress by region

Attainment at the expected standard in reading, writing and maths (combined) has fallen in every region since 2019. 

London was the highest performing region in 2022, as in previous years, with 66% of pupils meeting the expected standard in reading, writing and maths. In all other regions, attainment in reading, writing and maths at the expected standard ranged between 57% and 60%.

Attainment at the higher standard in reading, writing and maths was also higher in London than in all other regions, with 11% of pupils in London meeting the higher standard compared to 6% or 7% in all other regions.

Progress was highest in London for each of reading (0.75), writing (0.89) and maths (1.16) in 2022. Progress in reading (-0.32) and writing (-0.37) was lowest in the East of England, whilst progress for maths (-0.48) was lowest in the South West. 

Attainment and progress by local authority

The map below shows the percentage of pupils reaching the expected standard in reading, writing and maths (combined) by local authority. This map shows a complex picture of attainment across England, with a range of high and low attainment in different areas.

Attainment at the expected standard in reading, writing and maths was highest in Richmond upon Thames (76%) and Kensington and Chelsea (73%) and lowest in the Isle of Wight (46%) and Portsmouth (49%). 

Progress was highest in reading and writing in Camden and highest in maths in Harrow. Progress was lowest in reading in Central Bedfordshire and then Northumberland and was lowest in maths in Northumberland and then Central Bedfordshire. Progress in writing was lowest in Portsmouth. 

Progress data for each local authority can be found in the underlying data. 

The below chart shows the relationship between local authority results in reading, writing and maths (combined) in 2019 and 2022. 

The black dotted line indicates achieving the same result in 2022 as in 2019. Local authorities which fall below the black dotted line had lower levels of attainment in 2022 than in 2019. This shows that attainment fell between 2019 and 2022 in almost all local authorities. Hackney, the local authority above the line, improved compared to 2019 (66% in 2019 to 69% in 2022). 

The blue line indicates the line of best fit. This line indicates that local authorities with lower attainment levels tended to see similar changes in attainment since 2019 than those with higher attainment levels i.e. the gap between the black line and the blue line is similar at lower and higher attainment levels. 

Note that more than one local authority may fall onto a single point on the figure and so the number of points do not sum to the number of local authorities.

School distribution

School distribution 

The below chart shows how the distribution of attainment at school level has changed since 2019. In 2019, more schools had a high proportion of pupils achieving the expected standard in reading, writing and maths i.e., the blue line showing 2022 attainment has shifted to the left. 

Note that the below chart uses smoothed lines.

About these statistics

This publication provides revised attainment and progress statistics for key stage 2 national curriculum assessments. It provides statistics on: 

Reading, writing and maths (combined) attainment

Pupils who meet the expected standard in reading, writing and maths (combined) are those who meet the expected standard in all three subjects. The expected standard in reading and maths is a scaled score of 100 or above. The expected standard in writing is a teacher assessment of 'working at the expected standard' (EXS) or 'working at greater depth' (GDS).

Pupils who reach the higher standard in reading, writing and maths (combined) are those who achieve a scaled score of 110 or more in reading and maths and are assessed as 'working at greater depth' (GDS) in writing TA.

Reading test attainment

Pupils who meet the expected standard in reading are those who achieve a scaled score of 100 or above. Pupils who meet the higher standard in reading are those who achieve a scaled score of 110 or more. 

Writing teacher assessment attainment

Pupils who meet the expected standard in writing are those who achieve a teacher assessment of 'working at the expected standard' (EXS) or 'working at greater depth' (GDS).

Pupils who reach the higher standard (referred to as greater depth) in writing are those who are assessed as 'working at greater depth' (GDS). 

Maths test attainment

Pupils who meet the expected standard in maths are those who achieve a scaled score of 100 or above. Pupils who meet the higher standard in maths are those who achieve a scaled score of 110 or more. 

Grammar, punctuation and spelling test attainment

Pupils who meet the expected standard in grammar, punctuation and spelling are those who achieve a scaled score of 100 or above. Pupils who meet the higher standard in grammar, punctuation and spelling are those who achieve a scaled score of 110 or more. 

Science teacher assessment attainment

Pupils who meet the expected standard in science are those who achieve a teacher assessment of 'working at the expected standard' (EXS) or 'working at greater depth' (GDS).

Pupils who reach the higher standard (referred to as greater depth) in science are those who are assessed as 'working at greater depth' (GDS). 

Progress measures - reading, writing and maths (individual subjects) 

The progress measures aim to capture the progress that pupils make from the end of Key Stage 1 to the end of primary school. They are a type of value-added measure, which means that pupils’ results are compared to the actual achievements of other pupils nationally with similar prior attainment.

Progress scores are calculated for individual pupils for the sole purpose of constructing a school progress score. Pupil scores are calculated separately for English reading, English writing and mathematics. Pupils who do not have Key Stage 1 data for all of English reading, English writing and mathematics (for example, those who entered a school from another jurisdiction, or who were absent at the time of the Key stage 1 assessments), cannot be included in the progress measures. 

Further information will be available

Pupil characteristics breakdowns at local authority levelLocal authority level data with pupil characteristics breakdowns - including data broken down by gender, ethnicity, free school meal eligibility, special educational needs provision and disadvantage - will be published is available in the underlying data. You can access this via the ‘data download’ section at the top of the page. 
Local authority district and constituency level, including local authority district breakdowns by pupil characteristicsLocal authority district level data with pupil characteristics breakdowns - including data broken down by free school meal eligibility and disadvantage - and constituency level data is available in the underlying data. You can access this via the ‘data download’ section at the top of the page. 
Attainment for other key stages 

Data on other key stages can be found at the following links: 

Early years foundation stage profile 

Key stage 1 

Multiplication tables check 

Key stage 4

16-19 attainment 

We will not publish key stage 2 data for academic year 2021/22 in performance tables (also known as Compare School and College Performance).  The Department will, however, still produce the normal suite of key stage 2 accountability measures at school and multi-academy trust level and share these securely with primary schools, academy trusts and local authorities to inform school improvement discussions. 

Help and support

Methodology

Find out how and why we collect, process and publish these statistics

National statistics

The United Kingdom Statistics Authority designated these statistics as National Statistics in accordance with the Statistics and Registration Service Act 2007 and signifying compliance with the Code of Practice for Statistics.

Designation signifying their compliance with the authority's Code of Practice for Statistics which broadly means these statistics are:

  • managed impartially and objectively in the public interest
  • meet identified user needs
  • produced according to sound methods
  • well explained and readily accessible

Once designated as National Statistics it's a statutory requirement for statistics to follow and comply with the Code of Practice for Statistics to be observed.

Find out more about the standards we follow to produce these statistics through our Standards for official statistics published by DfE guidance.

Contact us

Ask questions and provide feedback

If you have a specific enquiry about Key stage 2 attainment statistics and data:

Primary Attainment Statistics

Email
Primary.ATTAINMENT@education.gov.uk

Telephone: Lauren Snaathorst
01174 711744

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