Academic Year 2021/22

Key stage 2 attainment

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Introduction

This publication provides provisional attainment statistics for key stage 2 national curriculum assessments and extends the Key stage 2: National headlines statistics published on 5 July 2022.

It includes statistics for pupils in schools in England:

  • at national level, broken down by the following pupil characteristics: gender, disadvantage, free school meal eligibility, ethnicity, special educational need status, first language and month of birth;
  • at national level, broken down by the following school characteristics: school type, school phase, cohort size and school religious character;
  • at regional and local authority level, broken down by gender.

Some of these breakdowns are not discussed in the text but can be accessed via the table tool or downloading the data files.

All gaps and percentage point differences are calculated from unrounded figures.

These statistics are provisional and will be updated with revised data in December.


Headline facts and figures - 2021/22

These statistics cover the attainment of year 6 pupils who took assessments in summer 2022. These pupils experienced disruption to their learning during the pandemic, particularly at the end of year 4 and in year 5. 

These statistics are provisional and will be updated with revised data in December.

In individual subjects, attainment increased slightly in reading and fell in all other subjects compared to 2019 at both the expected and higher standard.

74% of pupils met the expected standard in reading, up from 73% in 2019. 28% of pupils reached the higher standard in reading, up from 27% in 2019. 

71% of pupils met the expected standard in maths, down from 79% in 2019. 22% of pupils reached the higher standard in maths, down from 27% in 2019. 

69% of pupils met the expected standard in writing, down from 78% in 2019. 13% of pupils reached the higher standard in writing, down from 20% in 2019. 

Attainment in reading, writing and maths (combined) has decreased compared to 2019 at both the expected and higher standard.

The Department for Education considers meeting the expected standard in reading, writing and maths to be key for success in secondary school and beyond. Therefore, in addition to attainment in individual subjects, we report on the proportion of pupils who meet the expected standard in all three of these subjects.

59% of pupils met the expected standard in reading, writing and maths, down from 65% in 2019. 

7% of pupils met the higher standard in reading, writing and maths, down from 11% in 2019.

The disadvantage gap index has increased from 2.91 in 2019 to 3.21 in 2022. 

The disadvantage gap index reduced between 2011 and 2018 - indicating that the gap in attainment between disadvantaged pupils and other pupils was becoming smaller - before remaining at a similar level between 2018 and 2019. The index has increased in 2022 to the highest level since 2012, suggesting that disruption to learning during the COVID-19 pandemic has had a greater impact on disadvantaged pupils.  

Attainment has fallen compared to 2019 for both disadvantaged pupils and other pupils at the expected and higher standards in all subjects except for reading. However, the attainment of disadvantaged pupils has fallen further than for other pupils, increasing the disadvantage attainment gap.

In reading, attainment remained stable for disadvantaged pupils at 62% and increased from 78% to 80% for other pupils. In writing, attainment fell from 68% to 55% for disadvantaged pupils and from 83% to 75% for other pupils. In maths, attainment fell from 67% to 56% for disadvantaged pupils and from 84% to 78% for other pupils. 

Attainment fell among both girls and boys in all subjects except reading, however the fall was slightly larger for girls. Girls continue to outperform boys in all subjects except maths.

54% of boys met the expected standard in reading, writing and maths (combined), down from 60% in 2019. 63% of girls met the expected standard in all three subjects, down from 70% in 2019.

Attainment fell among pupils with English as their first language and pupils with a first language other than English in all subjects except reading, however the fall was larger for pupils with English as a first language.

60% of pupils whose first language is known or believed to be other than English met the expected standard in reading, writing and maths (combined), down from 64% in 2019. 58% of pupils whose first language is known or believed to be English met the expected standard in all three subjects, down from 65% in 2019. 

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Data quality

These statistics update and extend those published in the Key stage 2: National headlines statistics in July. These statistics are provisional and will be updated with revised data in December.

Impact of missing results on data quality

In 2022, there were unexpected difficulties during the collection and processing of key stage 2 assessment data. As a result, there are larger volumes of missing data than in previous years. Additional checks have been carried out by analysts to ensure the quality of these statistics. Test and teacher assessment volumes in 2022 compared to provisional data in 2019 are summarised in the table below. These figures are based on the data extract used for these statistics, which was taken on 24 July 2022.

Volumes of test and teacher assessment data in provisional 2019 and 2022 data (%)
 20192022
Reading test10099.9
Maths test10099.8
Grammar, punctuation and spelling test10099.7
Writing teacher assessment99.799.0
Science teacher assessment99.799.0

The table below summarise the rates of missing data by key pupil and school characteristics that are related to attainment. 

Rate of missing data by assessment in provisional 2022 statistics by pupil and school characteristics
 Reading testMaths testGrammar, punctuation and spelling testWriting teacher assessmentScience teacher assessment
Disadvantaged pupils0.10.20.31.01.0
Other pupils0.10.10.20.90.9
Pupils with SEN0.10.30.41.41.4
Pupils without SEN0.10.10.20.80.8
Pupils in mainstream schools0.10.20.30.80.8
Pupils in special schools0.10.20.14.54.5

The tables below summarise the rates of missing data by region and local authority. 

Rate of missing data by assessment in provisional 2022 statistics by region
RegionReading testMaths testGrammar, punctuation and spelling testWriting teacher assessmentScience teacher assessment
East Midlands0.20.10.10.30.3
East of England0.10.20.21.01.0
London0.00.10.30.90.9
North East0.00.20.21.21.2
North West0.10.20.20.90.9
South East0.10.20.21.31.3
South West0.00.10.40.80.8
West Midlands0.10.20.30.80.8
Yorkshire and The Humber0.10.10.40.80.8
Rate of missing data by assessment in provisional 2022 statistics by local authority
Local authority codeLocal authority nameReading testMaths testGrammar, punctuation and spelling testWriting teacher assessmentScience teacher assessment
301Barking and Dagenham0.10.01.20.10.1
302Barnet0.10.00.12.72.7
370Barnsley0.00.20.00.00.0
800Bath and North East Somerset0.00.00.13.23.2
822Bedford0.00.00.03.13.1
303Bexley0.10.10.10.10.1
330Birmingham0.00.20.20.30.3
889Blackburn with Darwen0.00.00.10.10.1
890Blackpool0.00.10.09.79.7
350Bolton0.00.10.60.20.2
839Bournemouth, Christchurch and Poole0.10.00.10.10.1
867Bracknell Forest0.10.10.10.00.0
380Bradford0.30.00.12.62.6
304Brent0.00.10.10.40.4
846Brighton and Hove0.10.10.10.10.1
801Bristol, City of0.00.10.20.70.7
305Bromley0.00.10.60.10.1
825Buckinghamshire0.00.10.70.00.0
351Bury0.00.00.10.10.1
381Calderdale0.00.00.00.10.1
873Cambridgeshire0.00.10.61.81.8
202Camden0.10.10.10.10.1
823Central Bedfordshire0.00.20.10.70.7
895Cheshire East0.30.40.10.20.2
896Cheshire West and Chester0.10.10.10.10.1
201City of London0.00.00.00.00.0
908Cornwall0.00.10.30.00.0
840County Durham0.00.10.32.82.8
331Coventry0.00.20.20.40.4
306Croydon0.00.20.02.92.9
909Cumbria0.00.00.13.43.4
841Darlington0.00.00.03.53.5
831Derby0.00.10.00.10.1
830Derbyshire0.00.10.10.40.4
878Devon0.00.01.50.70.7
371Doncaster0.00.20.20.00.0
838Dorset0.00.00.10.90.9
332Dudley0.00.10.10.20.2
307Ealing0.00.10.10.10.1
811East Riding of Yorkshire0.00.20.80.00.0
845East Sussex0.20.30.10.10.1
308Enfield0.00.00.00.40.4
881Essex0.00.40.11.01.0
390Gateshead0.00.10.10.00.0
916Gloucestershire0.10.10.10.80.8
203Greenwich0.10.10.10.10.1
204Hackney0.00.10.00.10.1
876Halton0.10.00.00.00.0
205Hammersmith and Fulham0.00.10.00.50.5
850Hampshire0.50.20.20.20.2
309Haringey0.10.20.23.23.2
310Harrow0.10.11.90.10.1
805Hartlepool0.20.20.30.00.0
311Havering0.00.10.10.20.2
884Herefordshire, County of0.00.00.40.00.0
919Hertfordshire0.00.00.10.70.7
312Hillingdon0.00.11.13.93.9
313Hounslow0.00.01.30.30.3
921Isle of Wight0.00.10.10.00.0
420Isles of Scilly0.00.00.00.00.0
206Islington0.11.60.20.00.0
207Kensington and Chelsea0.10.40.10.00.0
886Kent0.00.10.31.51.5
810Kingston upon Hull, City of0.10.20.20.20.2
314Kingston upon Thames0.10.10.30.10.1
382Kirklees0.00.20.10.10.1
340Knowsley0.10.10.00.10.1
208Lambeth0.20.10.00.50.5
888Lancashire0.10.60.50.80.8
383Leeds0.00.10.20.60.6
856Leicester0.00.10.10.00.0
855Leicestershire0.00.00.00.10.1
209Lewisham0.00.00.12.12.1
925Lincolnshire0.00.10.10.20.2
341Liverpool0.10.20.10.30.3
821Luton0.10.30.10.10.1
352Manchester0.00.20.20.30.3
887Medway0.10.10.21.11.1
315Merton0.10.20.00.60.6
806Middlesbrough0.00.20.30.00.0
826Milton Keynes0.00.00.01.11.1
391Newcastle upon Tyne0.00.10.10.10.1
316Newham0.00.10.10.90.9
926Norfolk0.20.10.20.80.8
812North East Lincolnshire0.10.30.10.00.0
813North Lincolnshire0.00.00.00.00.0
940North Northamptonshire0.00.10.10.10.1
802North Somerset0.20.00.80.20.2
392North Tyneside0.01.00.70.20.2
815North Yorkshire0.00.10.22.02.0
929Northumberland0.00.10.10.10.1
892Nottingham1.80.20.40.10.1
891Nottinghamshire0.10.20.10.10.1
353Oldham0.10.30.11.91.9
931Oxfordshire0.10.10.12.22.2
874Peterborough0.00.20.13.83.8
879Plymouth0.00.10.10.50.5
851Portsmouth0.00.20.10.10.1
870Reading0.00.20.10.10.1
317Redbridge0.00.10.10.00.0
807Redcar and Cleveland0.10.00.30.10.1
318Richmond upon Thames0.00.00.10.10.1
354Rochdale0.10.10.20.40.4
372Rotherham0.10.33.62.62.6
857Rutland0.00.00.00.00.0
355Salford0.00.20.10.00.0
333Sandwell0.10.30.10.10.1
343Sefton0.00.30.25.45.4
373Sheffield0.10.30.20.10.1
893Shropshire0.00.10.21.91.9
871Slough0.20.10.00.10.1
334Solihull0.10.00.20.20.2
933Somerset0.00.10.11.01.0
803South Gloucestershire0.00.10.12.62.6
393South Tyneside0.10.00.10.50.5
852Southampton0.02.60.10.10.1
882Southend-on-Sea0.00.10.00.20.2
210Southwark0.00.00.00.00.0
342St. Helens0.00.00.10.10.1
860Staffordshire0.60.10.62.22.2
356Stockport0.10.10.10.00.0
808Stockton-on-Tees0.00.00.00.00.0
861Stoke-on-Trent0.10.20.31.91.9
935Suffolk0.10.10.90.10.1
394Sunderland0.00.20.14.34.3
936Surrey0.10.10.12.52.5
319Sutton0.00.20.00.40.4
866Swindon0.10.10.50.20.2
357Tameside0.00.20.00.10.1
894Telford and Wrekin0.20.10.11.51.5
883Thurrock0.00.10.10.20.2
880Torbay0.00.10.13.03.0
211Tower Hamlets0.00.20.33.83.8
358Trafford0.00.21.10.20.2
384Wakefield0.00.10.00.40.4
335Walsall0.00.20.20.20.2
320Waltham Forest0.00.10.30.10.1
212Wandsworth0.00.10.10.30.3
877Warrington0.10.80.10.00.0
937Warwickshire0.00.10.10.10.1
869West Berkshire0.10.00.20.10.1
941West Northamptonshire0.00.00.22.52.5
938West Sussex0.10.50.25.05.0
213Westminster0.00.30.11.41.4
359Wigan0.00.10.20.00.0
865Wiltshire0.00.10.10.30.3
868Windsor and Maidenhead0.40.40.30.30.3
344Wirral0.60.10.20.00.0
872Wokingham0.10.20.00.10.1
336Wolverhampton0.00.20.10.20.2
885Worcestershire0.00.31.11.61.6
816York0.20.10.50.40.4

The methodology used to create these statistics remains the same as in previous years. The treatment of missing data in these statistics differs by assessment type (test or teacher assessment) and the level of data (national or regional/local authority):

  • National level statistics: missing data is excluded from the measures in all subjects.
  • Regional and local authority level statistics: missing data for test subjects (reading, maths and grammar, punctuation and spelling) is excluded from the measures. For teacher assessment data (writing and science), pupils with missing results are included in the measures as not meeting the expected standard.

Further detail on the methodology used to create these statistics can be found in the accompanying methodology document.

Measures for test subjects (reading, maths and grammar, punctuation and spelling) are considered of sufficient quality at national and regional level as the rates of missing data for these subjects is low and similar across pupil and school characteristics. 

As in previous years, there can be small changes between provisional and revised data, but such changes are likely to be similar in scale and direction across pupil and school characteristics. 

Measures for teacher assessment subjects (writing and science) are considered of sufficient quality at national level. At regional and local authority level, users are advised to exercise caution when using these measures (including measures for all of reading, writing and maths). This is because there may be larger changes in these figures between provisional and revised data than usual and the scale may be different between local authorities as rates of missing data vary by local authority (ranging from 0.1 to 9.7%). 32 out of 152 local authorities are missing 1.5% or more teacher assessment data. These local authorities are indicated as such in the underlying data and particular caution should be taken when using these data. 

The deadline for schools and local authorities to submit teacher assessment was 28 June 2022. The Primary Assessment Gateway remains open and schools and local authorities are encouraged to provide any missing teacher assessment to the Department as soon as possible so that these can be included in the revised statistics in December.

Attainment in reading, writing and maths (combined)

The Department for Education considers meeting the expected standard in reading, writing and maths to be key for success in secondary school and beyond. Therefore, we report on the proportion of pupils who meet the expected standard in all three of these subjects.

In 2022, 59% of pupils met the expected standard in all of reading, writing and maths, down from 65% in 2019. At the higher standard, 7% of pupils met this in all of reading, writing and maths, down from 11% in 2019. 

Attainment in all of reading, writing and maths is not directly comparable to some earlier years (2016 and 2017) because of changes to writing teacher assessment frameworks in 2018.

This decrease in attainment in all of reading, writing and maths is due to a fall in attainment in writing and maths (see ‘Attainment in individual subjects’ section).

Earlier this year, the Department announced a Levelling Up mission for 90% of pupils to meet the expected standard in reading, writing and maths at the end of key stage 2 by 2030. 

Attainment in individual subjects

Attainment at the expected standard

In the reading test, 74% of pupils met the expected standard in 2022, up from 73% in 2019.

In the writing teacher assessment, 69% of pupils met the expected standard, down from 78% in 2019. Attainment in writing is not directly comparable to some earlier years (2016 and 2017) because of changes to writing teacher assessment frameworks in 2018. 

In the maths test, 71% of pupils met the expected standard, down from 79% in 2019.

Among reading, writing and maths, attainment is now highest in reading. This is a reversal from previous years (2016 to 2019) when attainment was lowest in this subject. Of these three subjects, attainment is now lowest in writing.

In grammar, punctuation and spelling, 72% of pupils met the expected standard, down from 78% in 2019. This is the lowest figure since new assessments were introduced in 2016, when 73% of pupils met the expected standard.

In science teacher assessment, 79% of pupils met the expected standard in 2022, down from 83% in 2019. Attainment in science is not directly comparable to some earlier years (2016, 2017 and 2018) because of changes to science teacher assessment frameworks in 2019. 

Among all subjects, the largest fall in attainment compared to 2019 was in writing (9 percentage points), followed by maths (7 percentage points), grammar, punctuation and spelling (6 percentage points) and science (4 percentage points). 

Attainment at the higher standard

In reading, 28% of pupils met the higher standard in 2022, up from 27% in 2019. 

In writing teacher assessment, 13% of pupils met the higher standard, down from 20% in 2019. Attainment in writing is not directly comparable to some earlier years (2016 and 2017) because of changes to writing teacher assessment frameworks in 2018. 

In maths, 22% of pupils met the higher standard, down from 27% in 2019. 

Among reading, writing and maths, attainment at the higher standard is highest in reading. From 2016 to 2018, reading was also highest. In 2019, reading and maths were highest at 27%. Attainment of the higher standard in these three subjects remains lowest in writing. 

In grammar, punctuation and spelling, 28% of pupils met the higher standard, down from 36% in 2019. 

There is no higher standard for science.

Average scaled scores in reading, maths and grammar, punctuation and spelling

We use scaled scores to report the results of tests so we can make accurate comparisons of performance over time.

In reading, the average scaled score is 105, up from 104 in 2019. 

In maths, the average scaled score is 104, down from 105 in 2019.

In grammar, punctuation and spelling, the average scaled score is 105, down from 106 in 2019.

The average scaled score is the mean scaled score of all pupils awarded a scaled score. It gives us a measure of the typical performance of a pupil taking the tests. It is affected by the performance of pupils at all points in the range of scores. By contrast, the percentage of pupils achieving the expected standard focuses on the proportion of pupils above or below one particular score (100).

Attainment by pupil characteristics

This section looks at key stage 2 attainment by gender, disadvantage, special education need (SEN) status, first language and ethnicity. Further information is available via the table tool and data files, including attainment by month of birth and free school meal eligibility. 

Note that the statistics on disadvantage in this publication are provisional and do not include pupils in the care of the local authority for a day or more in the last year unless they were eligible for free school meals during the last 6 years, or they have ceased to be looked after in the last year. See the section on Disadvantaged Pupils below for further information. 

Attainment by gender

Attainment has fallen compared to 2019 for both boys and girls in all subjects except for reading, where attainment at the expected standard remained stable at 69% for boys and increased from 78% to 80% for girls. In writing, attainment fell from 72% to 63% for boys and from 85% to 76% for girls. In maths, attainment fell from 79% to 71% for girls and to a lesser extent for boys, from 78% to 72%.

Girls outperformed boys in all subjects in 2022 except for maths, where boys performed better than girls at both the expected and higher standard. Among individual subjects, the biggest attainment gap between boys and girls remains in writing at 14 percentage points (in favour of girls). 

In reading, writing and maths (combined), 63% of girls met the expected standard compared to 54% of boys, a gap of 9 percentage points, down from 10 percentage points in 2019. This slight narrowing of the gender gap is due to a slightly larger fall in attainment for girls than boys: the percentage of pupils meeting the expected standard fell by 7 percentage points for girls and 6 percentage points for boys compared to 2019. 

In 2022, 9% of girls achieved the higher standard in reading, writing and maths (combined), down from 13% in 2019.  Among boys, 6% achieved the higher standard, down from 9% in 2019. 

Disadvantage gap index 

The disadvantage gap index reduced between 2011 and 2018 (indicating that the attainment gap between disadvantaged pupils and other pupils was becoming smaller) before remaining at a similar level between 2018 and 2019. The disadvantaged gap index increased from 2.91 in 2019 to 3.21 in 2022, increasing to the highest level since 2012. This suggests that disruption to learning during the COVID-19 pandemic has had a greater impact on disadvantaged pupils. 

The disadvantage gap index summarises the attainment gap between disadvantaged pupils and all other pupils

The gap index is more resilient to changes to assessment and therefore offers greater comparability between years. The index ranks all pupils in the country. A disadvantage gap of zero would indicate that there is no difference between the average performance of disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged pupils. We measure whether the disadvantage gap is getting larger or smaller over time.

The statistics about disadvantage in this publication are provisional and do not include pupils in the care of a local authority unless they were eligible for free school meals during the last 6 years or ceased to be looked-after in the last year. These pupils will be included in revised disadvantage statistics in December. We expect this to have a small impact on the disadvantage gap index (an increase of around 0.02 between provisional and revised in the gap index in recent years).

Attainment by disadvantage status

In 2022, 31% of pupils at the end of key stage 2 were considered disdvantaged.

Attainment has fallen compared to 2019 for both disadvantaged pupils and other pupils at the expected and higher standards in all subjects except for reading. However, the attainment of disadvantaged pupils has fallen further than for other pupils, increasing the disadvantage attainment gap. In writing, attainment fell from 68% to 55% for disadvantaged pupils and from 83% to 75% for other pupils. In maths, attainment fell from 67% to 56% for disadvantaged pupils and from 84% to 78% for other pupils. In reading, attainment remained stable for disadvantaged pupils at 62% and increased from 78% to 80% for other pupils.

In reading, writing and maths (combined), 43% of disadvantaged pupils met the expected standard in 2022 compared to 65% of other pupils, a difference of 23 percentage points. This is an increase from 20 percentage points in 2019, when 51% of disadvantaged pupils and 71% of other pupils met the expected standard in reading, writing and maths.

In 2022, 3% of disadvantaged pupils achieved the higher standard in reading, writing and maths (combined), down from 5% in 2019.  Among other pupils, 9% achieved the higher standard, down from 13% in 2019. This means that, although the attainment at the higher standard of both groups decreased, there was a smaller fall for disadvantaged pupils (2 percentage points) than other pupils (4 percentage points).

Definition of disadvantage

Disadvantaged pupils are ordinarily defined as: those who were registered as eligible for free school meals at any point in the last six years, children looked after by a local authority or have left local authority care in England and Wales through adoption, a special guardianship order, a residence order or a child arrangements order. 

As noted above, the statistics about disadvantage in this publication are provisional and do not include pupils in the care of a local authority unless they were also eligible for free school meals during the last 6 years or ceased to be looked-after in the last year. These pupils will be included in revised disadvantage statistics in December. We expect this to have only a marginal impact on the statistics, which are expected to change by less than half a percentage point.

Attainment by Special Education Need status

In 2022, 20% of pupils at the end of key stage 2 had a special educational need (SEN). SEN pupils either have an Education, Health and Care Plan (EHCP) or receive SEN support. In 2022, 4% of pupils had an EHCP and 15% were on SEN support.

Of all reported characteristics, the difference between the comparison groups is largest when looking at SEN. 

In 2022, 18% of pupils with SEN reached the expected standard in reading, writing and maths (combined), compared with 69% of pupils with no identified SEN, resulting in an attainment gap of 51 percentage points. The percentage of pupils with SEN meeting the expected standard fell from 2019 to 2022 by slightly less than those with no identified SEN (4 percentage points and 6 percentage points respectively). 

Attainment by first language 

In 2022, 21% of pupils at the end of key stage 2 had a first language other than English.

Attainment has fallen compared to 2019 for both pupils with English and a language other than English as their first language at the expected and higher standards in all subjects except for reading. However, the attainment of pupils with English as their first language has fallen further than for pupils with a first language other than English. In writing, attainment fell from 77% to 70% among pupils with a first language other than English and from 79% to 70% among pupils with English as their first language. In maths, attainment fell from 80% to 75% among pupils with a first language other than English and from 78% to 71% among pupils with English as their first language

As a result of these shifts in attainment, the attainment of pupils with a language other than English as their first language at the expected standard in reading, writing and maths (combined) is now greater than that of pupils with a first language of English. This follows several years of the attainment gap between these groups of pupils narrowing. In 2019, 58% of pupils with a first language other than English met the expected standard in all three subjects (down from 65% in 2019) compared to 60% among pupils with English as their first language (down from 64%).

In 2022, 8% of pupils with a language other than English as their first language achieved the higher standard in reading, writing and maths (combined), down from 11% in 2019.  Among pupils with English as their first language, 7% achieved the higher standard, down from 11% in 2019. 

Attainment by ethnicity

Attainment at the end of key stage 2 varies by pupil ethnicity.

Indian pupils are the highest achieving group in all of reading, writing and maths (74% of pupils met the expected standard), followed by Chinese pupils (70%). Gypsy/Roma pupils are the lowest performing group (15% met the expected standard in reading, writing and maths (combined), followed by Traveller of Irish heritage pupils (16%).

Following feedback from users, we have included Chinese pupils in the Asian ethnic group in this publication for the first time. This is a change from previous years, when Chinese pupils were reported separately. This change has been backdated to 2016 to allow comparisons over time. Figures for Chinese pupils only are still available via the table tool (within subject 'Key stage 2 attainment by pupil characteristics') and the data file ‘ks2_national_pupil_characteristics_2016_to_2022_provisional.csv.’

Attainment by school characteristics

Further information is available via the table tool and data files, including attainment by phase, school religious character and cohort size.

Attainment by school type

There were 15,336 state-funded mainstream primary schools with key stage 2 results in 2022. 

Since 2016, there have been substantial changes to the makeup of school types in England. The proportion of LA maintained schools decreased from 82% in 2016 to 61% in 2022. There have been corresponding increases in the proportion of sponsored and converter academies to 11% and 27% respectively. It should be noted that the conversion of schools from one type to another means that the headline figures capture not only change in performance but also change in school type. While the number of free schools has increased to 174, free schools make up a very small proportion of schools. 

See the accompanying methodology and quality information document for details about different types of school. 

Similarly to 2019, attainment levels in mainstream academies and free schools as a group in 2022 is broadly similar to those in local authority maintained mainstream schools.

Among academies, converter academies had a broadly similar proportion of pupils meeting the expected standard as all state-funded mainstream schools. Attainment in sponsored academies is below the average for state-funded mainstream schools.

Regional and local authority attainment

Data quality

Users are advised to exercise caution when using writing and science teacher assessment measures, including reading, writing and maths (combined) measures, at regional and local authority level. 

This is because there are larger volumes of missing data for teacher assessment in 2022 than in previous years and rates of missing data vary by local authority (ranging from 0.1 to 9.7%). As a result, there may be larger changes in these figures between provisional and revised data than usual and the scale of change may be different between local authorities. 32 out of 152 local authorities are missing 1.5% or more teacher assessment data and particular caution should be taken when using these data. These local authorities are indicated as such in the underlying data and in a footnote to the map below. Please refer to the section on ‘Data quality’ for further information.

Attainment by region

Attainment at the expected standard in reading, writing and maths (combined) has fallen in every region since 2019. 

London was the highest performing region in 2022, as in previous years, with 65% of pupils meeting the expected standard in reading, writing and maths. In all other regions, attainment in reading, writing and maths at the expected standard ranged between 56% and 59%.

Attainment at the higher standard in reading, writing and maths was also higher in London than in all other regions, with 11% of pupils in London meeting the higher standard compared to 6% or 7% in all other regions.

Attainment by local authority

The map below shows the percentage of pupils reaching the expected standard in reading, writing and maths (combined) by local authority. This map shows a complex picture of attainment across England, with a range of high and low attainment in different areas.

Attainment at the expected standard in reading, writing and maths was highest in Richmond upon Thames (75%) and Kensington and Chelsea (71%) and lowest in the Isle of Wight (47%) and Portsmouth (48%). 

Further information will be available

Pupil characteristics breakdowns at local authority levelLocal authority level data with pupil characteristics breakdowns - including data broken down by gender, ethnicity, free school meal eligibility, special educational needs provision and disadvantage - will be published in the revised publication in December.
Local authority district and constituency level, including local authority district breakdowns by pupil characteristicsLocal authority district level data with pupil characteristics breakdowns - including data broken down by free school meal eligibility and disadvantage - and constituency level data will be published in the revised publication in December.
Progress measuresInformation on progress for different pupil groups and for local authorities will be published in the revised publication in December.

We will not publish key stage 2 data for academic year 2021/22 in performance tables (also known as Compare School and College Performance).  The Department will, however, still produce the normal suite of key stage 2 accountability measures at school and multi-academy trust level and share these securely with primary schools, academy trusts and local authorities to inform school improvement discussions. 

Help and support

Methodology

Find out how and why we collect, process and publish these statistics

National statistics

The United Kingdom Statistics Authority designated these statistics as National Statistics in accordance with the Statistics and Registration Service Act 2007 and signifying compliance with the Code of Practice for Statistics.

Designation signifying their compliance with the authority's Code of Practice for Statistics which broadly means these statistics are:

  • managed impartially and objectively in the public interest
  • meet identified user needs
  • produced according to sound methods
  • well explained and readily accessible

Once designated as National Statistics it's a statutory requirement for statistics to follow and comply with the Code of Practice for Statistics to be observed.

Find out more about the standards we follow to produce these statistics through our Standards for official statistics published by DfE guidance.

Contact us

Ask questions and provide feedback

If you have a specific enquiry about Key stage 2 attainment statistics and data:

Primary Attainment Statistics

Email
Primary.ATTAINMENT@education.gov.uk

Telephone: Lauren Snaathorst
01174 711222

Press office

If you have a media enquiry:

Telephone
020 7783 8300

Public enquiries

If you have a general enquiry about the Department for Education (DfE) or education:

Telephone
037 0000 2288