Reporting year 2023

Outcomes for children in need, including children looked after by local authorities in England

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See all updates (1) for Reporting year 2023
  1. Updated to include local authority tables on Key Stage 2 attainment and special educational needs

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Introduction

This statistical release provides a range of outcome measures at national and local authority level for children in need (CIN), including children looked after (CLA) by local authorities in England.

The outcome measures cover:

  • special educational needs
  • educational attainment (Key Stage 1, Key Stage 2 and Key Stage 4) and progress (Key Stage 2 and Key Stage 4)
  • destinations from school
  • absence from school
  • suspensions and permanent exclusions from school
  • free school meal eligibility
  • type of school attended.

Key Stage 2 and Key Stage 4 data is also published at national level for children who were previously looked after who left care through an adoption, special guardianship, or child arrangements order (Official Statistics).

Changes to this year's statistical release include the addition of severe absence (50% or more school sessions missed), placement breakdowns for attainment at national level and a period of care length breakdown for Key Stage 4 at national level.

The latest facts and figures relate to the reporting year ending 31 March 2023 for children in social care.


Headline facts and figures - 2023

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Social care groups

Summary

The social care groups cover children in need (CIN), children on a child protection plan (CPP) and children looked after  (CLA) by local authorities in England.  Where appropriate, an ‘all pupils comparison’ from the relevant national statistics is included for each outcome.

Detailed information on the social care groups and the all pupils comparisons is provided in the methodology document.

Abbreviations of social care group names used throughout this release 

  • CIN - children in need, including children on a child protection plan and children looked after. Children in need includes children on child in need plans as well as other types of plan or arrangements. Children in need also includes children awaiting a referral to be considered, an assessment to start or, for an assessment which has started, for the assessment to be completed.
  • CINO - children in need, excluding children on a child protection plan and children looked after. 
  • CPPO - children on a child protection plan, excluding children looked after.
  • CLA - children looked after (excludes children who are in respite care in their most recent episode during the reporting year).

Social care groups included in the commentary (referred to as key social care groups):

  • CIN at 31 March
  • CINO at 31 March
  • CPPO at 31 March
  • CLA 12 months at 31 March - CLA continuously for at least twelve months at 31 March.
  • CLA less than 12 months at 31 March - CLA continuously for less than twelve months at 31 March

Social care groups included in both national and local authority level data:

  • CINO at 31 March
  • CPPO at 31 March (where numbers are large enough).
  • CLA 12 months at 31 March (excluding free school meals at both national and local authority level)

Social care groups included in national level data only:

  • All pupils comparison - from the national publications.
  • CIN at 31 March
  • CLA less than 12 months at 31 March
  • CIN at any point - ‘any point’ means at any point during the reporting year (including at 31 March).
  • CINO at any point
  • CPPO at any point
  • CLA at any point
  • Ever CIN - last 6 years - children in need, at any point in the last 6 reporting years (including at 31 March).

Other groups

At Key Stage 2 and Key Stage 4 there are additional groups in the national level data for children with previously looked after arrangements (PLAA). These are Official Statistics on arrangements for previously looked after children.

  • PLAA - Adoption - previously looked after children who left care through an adoption.
  • PLAA - SGO - previously looked after children who left care through a special guardianship order (SGO).
  • PLAA - CAO - previously looked after children who left care through a child arrangements order (CAO).
  • PLAA - Total - previously looked after children who left care through an adoption, SGO or CAO.

Special educational needs

The key social care groups referred to in this section are ‘at 31 March’.

Pupils in the key social care groups were over twice as likely to have a special educational need (SEN) than the overall pupil population. They were over two and a half times more likely to have an Education, Health, and Care (EHC) plan than the overall pupil population and roughly twice as likely to have SEN support. For the majority of the key social care groups, the prevalence of EHC plans compared to the overall population is much higher, the highest being CLA for at least 12 months, where they were over seven times more likely to have an EHC plan than the overall population (this is similar to previous years).

Of all the key social care groups, CLA for at least 12 months had the highest proportion of children with SEN (58.1%) compared to CPPO (40.8%), which had the lowest proportion. 17.1% of all pupils had SEN.

The percentage of pupils with SEN across the key social care groups is broadly stable in the seven years covered in this data though rising slightly for some groups over the last couple of years. The largest rises were in the CIN and CPPO social care groups, with increases of over 2 percentage points compared to last year. Additionally, the proportion of CLA for at least 12 months with a statement or EHC plan has risen by over 4 percentage points to 30.8% over the seven years covered in this data.

It has been recorded that children with SEN have lower levels of attainment compared to the overall pupil population.  For more information see the Key Stage 2 attainment statistical release and the Key Stage 4 attainment statistical release. It is important to consider these differences in attainment when viewing the educational outcomes data for children belonging to all the social care groups.

Primary type of special education need

For all the key social care groups, among pupils with SEN support, the most common type of primary need (for over a third for each social care group and over half in the CLA for at least 12 months group) was social, emotional, and mental health. The most common type of need among the overall pupil population is speech, language, and communications needs.

Social, emotional, and mental health was also the most common type of need among pupils with an EHC plan for CPPO and for the children looked after social care groups. Autism spectrum disorder was the most common type of need for both CIN social care groups and for the overall pupil population. For the children looked after social care groups, these two types of primary need accounted for over 60% of pupils with an EHC plan.

Key Stage 1 attainment

The key social care groups referred to in this section are ‘at 31 March’.

Pupils are assessed in reading, writing, maths, and science in year 2, at the end of Key Stage 1. Pupils are required to take tests in reading and maths at the end of Key Stage 1, however teacher assessment is the only data used and reported by the Department for Education.

There were no assessments in 2020 and 2021 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The 2021/22 academic year saw the return of the teacher assessments at Key Stage 1 after the impact of the pandemic and subsequently were the first results since the 2018/19 academic year. End of KS1 assessments will become non-statutory from the 2023/24 academic year onwards. Optional assessments will still be offered, but these statistics will not be published in 2023/24.

For more information see the Key Stage 1 and phonics screen check attainment statistical release.

Summary

Pupils in the key social care groups perform less well than the overall pupil population across all Key Stage 1 measures. However, children looked after and children in need are more likely to have a special educational need (SEN) than the overall pupil population. Pupils with SEN have been recorded to have lower attainment compared to the overall population. As such, the higher prevalence of SEN amongst children looked after and children in need accounts for part of the difference in attainment compared to the overall pupil population.

Expected standard

Teacher assessments are based on a broad range of evidence from across the curriculum and knowledge of how a pupil has performed over time and in a variety of contexts.

Changes to the 2018/19 reading, maths, and science teacher assessment frameworks and the 2017/18 writing teacher assessment frameworks mean judgements made in these subjects are not directly comparable to previous years.

In 2022/23, the percentage of pupils in each of the key social care groups meeting the expected standard across all subjects at Key Stage 1 is lower than in 2018/19 but generally higher than in 2021/22. A similar pattern was seen for the overall pupil population at Key Stage 1.

Pupils in the key social care groups are less likely to have achieved the expected standard than the overall pupil population for all subjects at Key Stage 1.

In 2022/23, CLA for at least 12 months had the highest percentage of pupils achieving the expected standard of the key social care groups across all subjects (reading 46%, maths 45%, writing 36% and science 57%). CLA for less than 12 months had the lowest percentage achieving the expected standard for maths (38%), reading (38%) and writing (26%). CINO had the lowest percentage of pupils achieving the expected standard in science (49%).

More pupils from the key social care groups achieved the expected standard at Key Stage 1 in science than met the expected standard in writing. This was the same as the overall pupil population.

Key Stage 2 attainment and progress

The key social care groups referred to in this section are ‘at 31 March’.

This is the second publication of Key Stage 2 statistics for children in social care since 2019, following the cancellation of the 2020 and 2021 assessments during the pandemic.

Pupils take national curriculum assessment in year 6, at the end of Key Stage 2, when most pupils will reach age 11 by the end of the academic year. Pupils take tests in reading, mathematics, and grammar, punctuation, and spelling, and receive a teacher assessment in writing and science. The combined reading, writing and mathematics measure uses the results of the reading and mathematics tests and the outcome of the writing teacher assessment.

For more information see the Key Stage 2 attainment statistical release.

Summary

Pupils in the key social care groups perform less well than the overall pupil population across all Key Stage 2 attainment measures. However, children looked after and children in need are more likely to have a special educational need (SEN) than the overall pupil population. Pupils with SEN have been recorded to have lower attainment and progress outcomes compared to the overall population. As such, the higher prevalence of SEN amongst children looked after and children in need accounts for part of the difference in attainment and progress compared to the overall pupil population.

Expected standard

For each test or teacher assessment, the number of pupils meeting the expected standard is the sum of all pupils with the following results:

  • For the reading, mathematics and grammar, punctuation, and spelling tests: achieved the expected standard or met the higher standard.
  • For the writing teacher assessment: working at the expected standard or working at a greater depth.
  • For the science teacher assessment: working at the expected standard.

Pupils in the key social care groups are less likely to have achieved the expected standard than the overall pupil population for all subjects at Key Stage 2. 

The percentage of pupils in the CIN and CPPO key social care groups achieving the expected standard in reading has decreased since 2021/22 and is lower than in 2018/19. The proportion of CLA achieving the expected standard in reading has increased for CLA for at least 12 months, to 55% in 2022/23, compared to 52% in 2021/22 and 49% in 2018/19.

The percentage of pupils achieving the expected standard in all other subjects has generally increased for all key social care groups since 2021/22. The highest percentage point increases are for both of the CLA social care groups.

Attainment in writing is not directly comparable to years prior to 2018 due to changes in writing teacher assessment frameworks that year. However, the percentage of pupils in all the key social care groups achieving the expected standard has increased in 2022/23 compared to 2021/22, with the largest increases being in both of the CLA social care groups.

CLA for at least 12 months had the highest percentage of pupils achieving the expected standard across all subjects in 2022/23. CINO had the lowest proportion of pupils achieving the expected standard for all subjects.

Pupils in most of the key social care groups were roughly half as likely to meet the expected standard in reading, writing and mathematics (combined) compared to the overall pupil population where 60% met the expected standard. For CLA for at least 12 months, the percentage that met the expected standard in reading, writing and mathematics combined increased 6 percentage points to 37% in 2022/23 compared to 2021/22.

Average progress scores

Progress measures aim to capture the progress that pupils make from the end of Key Stage 1 to the end of primary school education. Progress scores are calculated for individual pupils separately for each of reading, writing and mathematics. Pupils who do not have Key Stage 1 data for these subjects do not have progress scores.

Progress scores are a value-added measure which means that a pupil's results can be compared to the results of other pupils nationally with similar prior attainment. They are a relative measure, therefore the national average scores for all pupils are very close to zero for each subject. They can be used to compare the progress of different pupil characteristics.

The average progress score is generally lower for all key social care groups in all subjects than for the overall pupil population. However, CLA for at least 12 months had the highest average progress scores of all the key social care groups across all subjects and the progress scores for reading were the same as the overall pupil population. CINO have the lowest average progress scores of all the key social care groups for reading and writing. CPPO have the lowest average score for maths.

Key Stage 4 attainment and progress

The key social care groups referred to in this section are ‘at 31 March’.

In 2022/23 there was a return to pre-pandemic standards for GCSEs, with protection built into the grading process to recognise the disruption that students have faced. For VTQs that are taken alongside, or instead, of GCSEs and A levels, there was also a return to pre-pandemic standards in 2022/23.

Throughout this release, comparisons are made with 2022 and with 2019. The more meaningful comparison is with 2019, the last year that summer exams were taken before the pandemic, as 2023 saw a return to pre-pandemic grading, with some protections. In 2022 outcomes broadly reflected a mid-point between 2019 and 2021, to take account of the impact of the pandemic and in line with Ofqual’s approach to grading in 2022. It is expected that performance in 2023 will generally be lower than in 2022. Users need to exercise extreme caution when considering comparisons over time, as they may not reflect changes in pupil performance alone.

For more information see the Key Stage 4 performance statistics release for the academic year 2022/23.

Summary

Pupils in the key social care groups perform less well than their peers across all Key Stage 4 measures. However, children looked after and children in need reaching the end of Key Stage 4 are much more likely to have a special educational need (SEN) than the overall pupil population. Pupils with SEN have been recorded to have lower average attainment compared to the overall population. As such, the higher prevalence of SEN amongst children looked after and children in need accounts for part of the difference in attainment compared to the overall pupil population.

Attainment 8

Attainment 8 measures the average achievement of pupils in up to 8 qualifications. This includes: English language; English literature (if only one GCSE in English is taken then it is double weighted); mathematics (double weighted); three further qualifications that count in the English Baccalaureate (EBacc); and three further qualifications that can be GCSE qualifications (including EBacc subjects) or any other non-GCSE qualification on the DfE approved list.

From 2018, Attainment 8 had a maximum point score of 90, compared to a maximum of 87 in 2017 and 80 in 2016. This is a consequence of the phased introduction of reformed GCSEs graded on the 9-1 scale. These differences should be considered when comparing Attainment 8 scores before 2019.

The average Attainment 8 score has decreased for all pupils and across all the key social care groups compared to 2021/22 and are similar to pre-pandemic average scores achieved in 2018/19. Attainment 8 levels for the CLA social care groups are slightly higher than 2018/19 whereas average scores for the CIN and CPPO social care groups (and all pupils) are slightly lower than in 2018/19 with CPPO seeing the largest fall. 

As in 2021/22, the average Attainment 8 scores in 2022/23 for all the key social care groups were less than half of that compared to the overall pupil population. The attainment of pupils across most of the key social care groups in 2022/23 was broadly similar, except for lower attainment for CLA for less than 12 months.

Attainment 8 by SEN

Children in the key social care groups perform less well than their peers across all Key Stage 4 measures. However, children looked after and children in need reaching the end of Key Stage 4 are much more likely to have a special educational need (SEN) than all children. Children with SEN have been recorded to have lower average attainment compared to the overall population. So, whilst many factors are involved, this accounts for part of the difference between the overall pupil population and children looked after and children in need. This is demonstrated by the general reduction in the difference between the key social care groups and the overall pupil population average Attainment 8 scores when looking at the individual SEN categories, including no identified SEN.

Attainment 8 by ethnicity

Average attainment scores vary by ethnicity and key social care group. For the overall pupil population and CPPO, Asian or Asian British children have the highest average Attainment 8 scores. 

For CLA for at least 12 months, Black, African, Caribbean, or Black British pupils have the highest average score. For CLA for less than 12 months, mixed or multiple ethnicity pupils had the highest average score. For CIN and CINO, pupils with Unknown ethnicity had the highest average scores.

Conversely, in the overall population, and for CPPO, pupils with Unknown ethnicity had the lowest average attainment scores. For CINO, White pupils have the lowest average score, but for CIN at 31 March and CLA, pupils from other ethnic groups have the lowest average score.

Attainment 8 by period of care length

Average attainment scores increase with longer period of care durations.

Attainment in English and mathematics (grades 5 or above)

This measure looks at the percentage of pupils achieving grade 5 or above in both English and mathematics GCSEs. To count for this measure a pupil would have to achieve a grade 5 or above in either English literature or English language. There is no requirement to sit both.

The percentage of pupils achieving grade 5 or above in both English and mathematics GCSEs has decreased across the overall pupil population and all the key social care groups since 2021/22 but is generally higher than or similar to 2018/19. 

The attainment of pupils across most of the key social care groups was broadly similar, except for lower attainment for CLA for less than 12 months. CINO were more likely to have achieved a grade 5 or above in both English and mathematics GCSEs (10.0%) than other key social care groups, including CLA for at least 12 months (9.5%) and CIN (9.5%).

The English Baccalaureate (EBacc) entry

The EBacc shows how many pupils are entering GCSEs (or AS level qualifications) in core academic subjects at Key Stage 4. The EBacc consists of English, mathematics, science, a language, and history or geography. To count in the EBacc, qualifications must be on the English Baccalaureate list of qualifications.

In 2020, this measure was less likely to have been affected by the cancellation of examinations as schools will have taken most of their entry decisions ahead of the COVID-19 disruption.

The percentage of pupils entering the English Baccalaureate has remained broadly stable for both the overall pupil population and those in key social care groups, with a slight increase for CLA for at least 12 months and a slight decrease for CPPO.

EBacc average point score (EBacc APS)

The EBacc APS measures pupils' point scores across the five pillars of the EBacc - English, mathematics, science, a language, and history or geography - with a zero for any missing pillars. This ensures the attainment of all pupils is recognised, not just those at particular grade boundaries, encouraging schools to enter pupils of all abilities, and support them to achieve their full potential.

For more information on these measures and their calculation methodology, see the secondary accountability guidance.

The EBacc average point score decreased across all the key social care groups and the overall pupil population in 2022/23 and in 2021/22 and is roughly in line with 2018/19. All the key social care groups have an average point score less than half that of the overall pupil population.

Progress 8

Progress 8 aims to capture the progress a pupil makes from the end of Key Stage 2 to the end of Key Stage 4. It compares pupils' achievement - their Attainment 8 score - with the national average Attainment 8 score of all pupils who had a similar starting point (or ‘prior attainment’), calculated using assessment results from the end of primary school. Progress 8 is a relative measure, therefore the national average Progress 8 score for all pupils is very close to zero. It can be used to compare the progress of different pupil characteristics.

A Progress 8 score of 1.0 means pupils in the group make on average approximately a grade more progress than the national average; a score of -0.5 means they make on average approximately half a grade less progress than average.

The average Progress 8 score is lower for all key social care groups than for the overall pupil population. CLA for at least 12 months perform better than children in other key social care groups and CLA for less than 12 months have the lowest average Progress 8 score of all social care groups.

Destinations

The most recent Key Stage 4 destination measures follow pupils who were at the end of Key Stage 4 study (GCSE and equivalent qualification) in 2020/21 and reports their destinations in the following academic year (2021/22). They show the percentage of pupils going to an education, apprenticeship or employment destination. To be counted in a destination, young people have to have sustained participation for a 6 month period in the destination year. Further details are provided in the methodology document that accompanies the Key Stage 4 destination measures statistical release.

The percentages for the social care groups are much less than the overall pupil population figures published in the Key Stage 4 destination measures statistical release. However, it should be noted that the figures in this outcomes release include additional institutions, so they are not directly comparable. For example, other institutions include: independent schools, independent special schools and secure units.

The percentage of Key Stage 4 leavers in sustained education decreased for all the key social care groups since 2020/21 and remained the most common destination. CLA for at least 12 months were had the highest proportion in sustained education (72%), while CPPO had the lowest (53%). The percentage of those in sustained employment increased in all the key social care groups.

Between 2016/17 and 2020/21 the percentage of CLA not in a sustained destination has seen the largest decrease compared with the other key social care groups. The proportion of CPPO to have no sustained destination was over 1.5 times more than CLA for at least 12 months.

Absence

The key social care groups referred to in this section are ‘at 31 March’.

With increased demand for statistics and data to measure the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Department for Education changed its data gathering and release practices, focussing efforts on priority analysis and statistics.  Therefore, no absence data relating to the full 2019/20 academic year is available.

In 2020/21 and 2021/22, data was collected on the number of sessions recorded as not attending in circumstances related to coronavirus (COVID-19). 

Due to the disruption during the 2020/21 and 2021/22 academic years, caution should be taken when comparing data to previous years. For more detailed information on this see Pupil absence in schools in England.

Overall absence

In 2022/23, there has been a small increase in the overall absence rate across all the key social care groups since the 2021/22 academic year with a small decrease in the overall pupil population. Overall absence is higher across all key social care groups and the overall pupil population, than pre-pandemic rates in 2018/19.

Pupils in state-funded Alternative Provision (AP) schools had higher overall absence rates than those in other school types for all key social care groups.

In 2022/23, most of the key social care groups (apart from CLA for at least 12 months) had absence rates more than double that of the overall pupil population (7.5%). CPPO had the highest overall absence rate of all the key social care groups (21.7%).

Persistent absentees

A pupil is identified as persistently absent if they miss 10% or more of possible sessions.

Pupils in all the key social care groups had higher rates of persistent absence than the overall pupil population (21.5%) except for CLA for at least 12 months (20.0%). CPPO had the highest proportion of pupils (57.5%) who were persistent absentees.

Pupils in state-funded AP schools had much higher persistent absence rates in all the key social care groups.

In 2022/23, there has been a small increase in persistent absentees across most of the key social care groups since the 2021/22 academic year with a small decrease in the overall pupil population. Persistent absence is higher across all key social care groups and the overall pupil population, than pre-pandemic rates in 2018/19.

Severe absentees

A pupil is identified as severely absent if they miss 50% or more of possible sessions.

This is the first time severe absence has been included in this statistical release.

Severe absence has increased in the overall pupil population and the key social care groups across academic years. The social care groups show higher levels of severe absence compared to the overall pupil population. Of the key social care groups, CPPO has the highest proportion of pupils who were severely absent (14.8%) and CLA for at least 12 months have the lowest level (4.9%) in 2022/23, similar to previous years.

Suspensions and permanent exclusions

The key social care groups referred to in this section are ‘at 31 March’.

Suspensions and permanent exclusions data is collected two terms in arrears, which means the latest available data for the full academic year is 2021/22.

The figures presented in this publication include the 2019/20 and 2020/21 academic years that were affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Data for all pupils are produced using a different methodology to that used for the social care groups, so it is not appropriate to make precise comparisons with suspensions and exclusions figures for all pupils. For more information see the methodology document.

Suspensions

Pupils with one or more suspension refers to pupils that had at least one suspension across the full academic year.

The percentage of pupils with one or more suspension has increased across all key social care groups and the overall pupil population, with figures at their highest in the six years covered in this data.

Within the key social care groups, CLA for less than 12 months were the most likely to be suspended (15.91%) and CINO were the least likely (11.92%), which follows the same pattern as previous years.

Permanent exclusions

A permanent exclusion refers to a pupil who is excluded and will not come back to that school (unless the exclusion is overturned). This data only includes permanent exclusions which have been upheld by the governing body or Independent Review Panel (IRP), and not those which are still ongoing. The permanent exclusion percentage is calculated as the number of permanent exclusions divided by the number of pupils (x100).

The percentage of pupils across all key social care groups who were permanently excluded declined between 2018/19 and 2020/21. As a result, the permanent exclusion rates across all the key social care groups and the overall pupil population were at their lowest levels in the six years covered in this data. However, this was driven by restrictions on school attendance in place for parts of the year during 2019/20 and 2020/21, caused by the pandemic, as described above. The 2021/22 data shows an increase in the percentage of permanent exclusions across all key social care groups and the overall pupil population.

Patterns across the key social care groups remain similar to previous years. The percentage of pupils permanently excluded for CLA for at least 12 months was 0.06%, which was lower than the rate for the overall pupil population (0.08%). In comparison, CPPO had the highest permanent exclusion rate (0.80%) of any of the key social care groups.

Free school meals

The key social care groups referred to in this section are ‘at 31 March’.

Children in state-funded schools in England are entitled to receive free school meals if a parent or carer was in receipt of certain benefits. More information on free school meal eligibility is provided in the department's Schools, pupils and their characteristics statistical release.

Since 1 April 2018, transitional protections have been in place which will continue during the roll out of Universal Credit. This has meant that pupils eligible for free school meals on or after 1 April 2018 retain their free school meals eligibility even if their circumstances change. Prior to the pandemic, this had been the main driver in the increase in the proportion of pupils eligible for free school meals as pupils continue to become eligible but fewer pupils stop being eligible.

Any pupil gaining eligibility for free school meals after 1 April 2018 will be protected against losing free school meals until March 2025. After March 2025, any existing claimants that no longer meet the eligibility criteria at that point (because they are earning above the threshold or are no longer a recipient of Universal Credit) will continue to receive free school meals until the end of their current phase of education (i.e. primary or secondary).

In 2022/23, 76.7% of CPPO pupils and 59.8% of pupils who were CIN at 31 March were eligible for free school meals. This is at least 2.5 times higher than the percentage for the overall pupil population (23.9%).

Free school meal eligibility for the CIN social care groups increased for a fifth consecutive year in 2022/23, which is similar to the overall pupil population. The increases between 2021/22 and 2022/23 are broadly consistent with the previous year, though the rise for CPPO pupils is higher than last year.

Children who have been in need in the last 6 years

There were 862,010 pupils (in state-funded primary and secondary schools, special schools, and state-funded alternative provision (AP) schools) in 2023 that were known to have been in need in the last 6 years:

This is equivalent to approximately 1 in 10 pupils.

Around two in five children (38.7%) had a special educational need; more than twice the rate of all pupils (17.1%).

More than three in five children (60.6%) were eligible for free school meals, compared to nearly a quarter (23.9%) of all pupils.

Over two fifths (40.7%) of compulsory school age children who have been in need in the last six years were persistently absent from school, which is almost twice the rate of all pupils (21.5%).

Less than a fifth (17.4%) achieved a grade 5 or above in GCSE English and mathematics, compared to nearly half of all pupils (45.3%), while their average Attainment 8 score was 27 compared to 46.3 for all pupils.

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If you have a specific enquiry about Outcomes for children in need, including children looked after by local authorities in England statistics and data:

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