Overview of data matching and calculation of outcomes
All figures in this release are based on data collected annually from local authorities in statutory social care censuses i.e. the children in need (CIN) and children looked after (CLA) data collections, and data from the national pupil database.
The method involved the following steps:
- Extracting all CLA, child protection plan (CPP) and CIN records from the social care census for six years (2013/14 to 2018/19), excluding children in respite care.
- Joining together by identifiers provided by local authority. Children on child in need and other plans (CINP) were defined as those who were in need but not CLA or on a CPP. Where a child was in more than one social care category, they were assigned to the group based on the hierarchy of categories: CLA above CPP above CINP. Where a child appears in more than one authority, their outcomes are counted each time as the impact of this is minor.
- Matching this dataset to the National Pupil Database to obtain data on special educational needs (SEN), free school meals (FSM), school type, absence and exclusions, and attainment of children who were in the social care groups.
- Figures for all pupils, whether in social care or not, are included for ease of reference. These figures were collated from relevant publications on gov.uk.
The method for calculating the outcomes of children in the social care groups can be found in the CLA Statistics Guide Version document, specifically following paragraphs 4.3.1 (recent history relating to outcome measures), 4.3.2 (handing of duplicates within the attainment data), 5.2.2 (details about the attainment data), and 5.2.3 (processing of Special Educational Needs data). For each outcome, the same calculations was applied to all years, apart from key stage 1 where the calculation method changed between 2017/18 and 2018/19.
In addition to the points above, for each attainment measure- the all pupils (SEN and non SEN) category includes pupils for whom the SEN provision could not be determined. The denominators for educational attainment, SEN, absence and exclusions only include those children for whom a Unique Pupil Reference has been supplied in the social care census and have been matched to the National Pupil Database.
There are some differences in how the outcomes were calculated for all pupils and those in the social care groups. However, the effect of these is small and figures are still comparable. There are also differences to the outcomes of CIN and CLA reported in the annual ‘outcomes for children looked after by LAs’ publication due to a different matching method being applied and the CIN category no longer excluding CLA who were not on a CPP.
Special educational needs
This measure includes children who were aged 4 years or older.
This measure includes children who were aged 4 years or older. Primary schools include middle schools deemed as primaries and academies. Secondary schools include all through schools. Special schools include maintained and non-maintained special schools.
Key Stage 1
Includes all schools with pupils eligible for assessment at key stage 1. Participation by independent schools is voluntary, therefore figures only include results from those independent schools which chose to make a return and which met the statutory standards for assessment and moderation. Number of eligible pupils includes pupils who are with maladministration and who are absent, disapplied, working below/towards/at the expected standard and working at greater depth within the expected standard at the end of key stage 1. Excludes pupils with missing teacher assessments.
Number reaching the expected standard includes pupils working at the expected standard and pupils working at greater depth within the expected standard.
Key Stage 2
Figures include those independent schools that chose to take part in key stage 2 assessments.
For reading, mathematics and GPS, pupils were excluded with missing or lost test results and pupils where results are suppressed pending the outcome of a maladministration investigation. The expected standard is a scaled score of 100 or above.
For writing, pupils are excluded with a missing teacher assessment. The expected standard includes those working at the expected standard (EXS) and those working at greater depth within the expected standard (GDS).
For reading, writing and mathematics, pupils were included who have reached the end of key stage 2 in all of reading, writing and mathematics. Includes pupils with missing or lost test results, pupils where results are suppressed pending the outcome of a maladministration investigation and those with a missing writing teacher assessment. The expected standard includes those pupils who reached the expected standard in all of reading, writing and mathematics.
More information on national curriculum assessments at key stage 2 is available here: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/2018-key-stage-2-assessment-and-reporting-arrangements-ara
Key Stage 4
Includes pupils in state-funded schools (academies, free schools, city technology colleges, further education colleges with provision for 14- to 16-year-olds and state-funded special schools), independent schools, independent special schools, non-maintained special schools, hospital schools and alternative provision (including pupil referral units, AP free schools and AP academies as well as state-funded AP placements in other institutions).
For all children, all enrolments (where pupils have been on roll for at least one session) have been included. Some pupils may be counted more than once (if they moved schools during the year or are registered at more than one school).
A filter on age between 5 and 15 years of age at the 31 August has been applied. Figures are based upon absence data for all six half terms of the academic year for 5-14 year olds and for the first five half terms of the academic year for 15 year olds (to account for high levels of study leave and other authorised absences for pupils aged 15 in the second half of the summer term). Children in need figures are shown for 4 half terms for 2014 and for six half terms for 2015 to 2019.
The number of sessions missed due to authorised, unauthorised and overall absence expressed as a percentage of the total number of possible sessions. The definition of persistent absence changed from the 2015/16 academic year onwards. Pupil enrolments missing 10% or more of their own possible sessions (due to authorised or unauthorised absence) are classified as persistent absentees. See Chapter 3 of the "Guide to absence statistics" for more information: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/absence-statistics-guide
A filter on age between 5 and 15 years of age at the 31 August has been applied. For all children, all enrolments (where pupils have been on roll for at least one session) have been included. Some pupils may be counted more than once (if they moved schools during the year or are registered at more than one school).