Methodology

Multi-academy trust performance measures (Key stages 2, 4 and 5)

Published

1. Introduction

1.1 Summary

This document covers the calculation of performance measures for use in the ‘multi-academy trust (MAT)  performance measures (Key stages 2, 4 and 5)’ statistics release, the KS4 and 16 to 18 MAT level accountability data on the Find School and College Performance Data website and the KS2 MAT level accountability data shared with eligible trusts through the View your education data website.

The performance measures published for multi-academy trust statistics are the following, organised by key stage.

  • Key Stage 2
    • KS2 Attainment in reading, writing and maths (combined)
    • KS2 Progress in reading
    • KS2 Progress in writing
    • KS2 Progress in maths
  • Key Stage 4
    • English Baccalaureate (EBacc) entry
    • Attainment 8
    • EBacc average point score (EBacc APS)
    • Attainment in English and maths at grade 5 or above
    • Attainment in the English Baccalaureate (EBacc) at grade 5 or above (and 4 or above)
    • Progress 8
  • 16 to 18 (Key Stage 5)
    • Average point score (APS) per academic entry 
    • Average point score (APS) per applied general entry

1.2 Coverage

This statistical release covers performance measures for Key Stage 2 (KS2) national curriculum assessments, GCSE results of pupils at the end of Key Stage 4 (KS4), and attainment of students in the academic and applied general cohorts, at the end of 16 to 18 study. The measures cover state-funded mainstream institutions that are either MATs, single-academy trusts (SATS) or institutions that are not academies. It also includes further breakdowns of MATs by sponsored academies and converter academies. Special schools, pupil referral units, alternative provision academies and alternative provision free schools are not included.

1.3  Who is this methodology for? 

This methodology is for

  • Senior leaders, governors and trustees working in multi-academy trusts
  • Anyone interested in performance of the multi-academy trust sector.

1.4 Brief overview of multi-academy trusts

A multi-academy trust (MAT) is a group of academies that are run by a single trust.

Academies receive funding directly from the government and are run by an academy trust, they do not charge fees and are inspected by Ofsted. They have to follow the same rules on admissionsspecial educational needs and exclusions as other state schools and students sit the same exams. Academies have more control over how they do things than community schools, for example they do not have to follow the national curriculum and can set their own term times. 

Trusts are not-for-profit companies that run academies. They employ the staff and have trustees who are responsible for the performance of the academies in the trust. Trusts might run a single academy (SATs) or a group of academies (MATs). Please note that there are MATs with only a single academy, these differ from SATs in their funding agreements with the Department. For more information, please see Academy and free school funding agreements.

Types of academies

There are multiple types of academies.

  • Converter academies have chosen to convert to academy status.
  • Sponsored  academies are established by a sponsor and were deemed by the Department for Education to be underperforming and in need of help from a sponsor to improve performance. 
  • Free schools are  brand new academies, set up without a predecessor school following a competitive application process. Legally, free schools are academies once open, so they enjoy the same autonomy and freedoms. Free schools include University Technical Colleges (UTCs), which are a type of free school set up by universities and employers to address a defined employer need in the local area.

2. Pupil/student performance measures

MAT statistics, and MAT level accountability statistics, are calculated using pupil/student level performance measures. Information on how these are calculated at each key stage can be found in the KS2 technical guide, the KS4 technical guide and the 16 to 18 technical guide.

3. Multi-academy trust hierarchy

3.1 What is the hierarchy?

The Department for Education maintains information on the institutions that have become academies, including the type of academy, the name and ID of the trust that runs the academy, whether that trust is a multi-academy trust or a single academy trust, the date the academy joined the trust and the total number of institutions within the trust.

This information, along with a list of all state-funded mainstream institutions that are not academies, is referred to as the MAT hierarchy. Using this information, each institution is additionally grouped into one of the following institution groups.

  • Multi-academy trust converter academy.
  • Multi-academy trust sponsored academy.
  • Multi-academy trust free school.
  • Single-academy trust converter academy.
  • Single-academy trust sponsored academy.
  • Single-academy trust free school.
  • Institutions that are not an academy.

3.2 How is the hierarchy used?

For the 2021/22 academic year, the MAT hierarchy is created using information that is correct as of 14th September 2021. The Hierarchy went through a checking exercise in the autumn of 2022 to ensure that trusts were happy that the information was correct.

For the ‘Multi-academy trust (MAT) performance measures (Key stages 2, 4 and 5)’ statistics release the hierarchy allows each pupil/student in the pupil/student level data to be assigned one of the groups outlined above. The pupil/student level data includes which institution the pupil/student attends and the MAT hierarchy indicates which group that institution is in.

For the MAT level accountability, the hierarchy is used to assign each institution to its multi-academy trust and additionally to determine whether that trust’s performance measures should be reported. For an individual MAT to be reported it must satisfy the inclusion criteria outlined below:

  • That had at least three academies with results at that key stage/cohort and 
  • Where those schools had been with the MAT for at least three academic years (defined as having joined that MAT before 14 September 2019). 

4. Calculating performance measures in the statistical release

The performance measures featured in the ‘Multi-academy trust (MAT) performance measures (Key stages 2, 4 and 5)’ statistics release are calculated as follows.

For each institution group, the unweighted pupil/student level performance measures are aggregated to create overall scores for the institution group. Unlike in MAT level accountability, all institutions (and therefore all students) within an institution group are included in the calculation of the statistics. i.e., no further inclusion criteria or weightings are applied, to provide an aggregate view of all schools which are part of a MAT for further context. The methodology for aggregating each performance measure can be found in each key stages technical guide (KS2 technical guideKS4 technical guide16 to 18 technical guide).

Additionally, further aggregations are made to combinations of these institution groups, organised as shown below.

  • All Multi-academy Trusts.
    • Multi-academy trust converter academy.
    • Multi-academy trust sponsored academy.
    • Multi-academy trusts free school.

       
  • All Single academy trusts.
    • Single-academy trust converter academy.
    • Single-academy trust sponsored academy.
    • Single academy trust free school.

       
  • All Converter academies 
    • Multi-academy trust converter academy.
    • Single-academy trust converter academy

       
  • All Sponsored academies 
    • Multi-academy trust sponsored academy.
    • Single-academy trust sponsored academy

       
  • All Free Schools
    • Multi-academy trust free school.
    • Single-academy trust free school.

       
  • All State funded mainstream institutions. 
    • Multi-academy trust converter academy.
    • Multi-academy trust sponsored academy.
    • Multi-academy trust free school.
    • Single-academy trust converter academy.
    • Single-academy trust sponsored academy.
    • Single-academy trust free school.
    • Institutions that are not an academy.

 

5. Calculating MAT level accountability

MAT level accountability has an inclusion criterion applied. 

For 2021 to 2022, for each key stage (and cohort at 16 to 18), performance measures are only produced at MAT level for trusts that; 

  • Have at least three mainstream institutions at that key stage (and cohort).
  • Each of which has been in the trust for at least three academic years (defined as having joined that MAT before 14 September 2019).

For each MAT that satisfied the inclusion criteria, an aggregation of the performance measures is calculated. Using only the pupil/student level performance measures of pupil/student attending institutions within the MAT that have been in the trust for at least three academic years. 

For the MAT level accountability measures, the score for each MAT is weighted for:

  • The number of pupils at the end of the key stage;
  • And, for KS2 and KS4, the length of time the school has been with that MAT (for KS4, those that have been with the MAT for three years are given a weight of three and those with the MAT for four or more years are given a weight of four; as the usual duration of KS2 is four years; for KS4, those that have been with the MAT for three years are given a weight of three, those with the MAT for four years are given a weight of four and those with the MAT for five or more years are given a weight of five; as the usual combined duration of KS3 and KS4 is five years). 

Further information can be found in the KS2 technical guide, the KS4 technical guide and the 16 to 18 technical guide.

6. Trust characteristic breakdowns in the statistical release

Within the ‘Multi-academy trust (MAT) performance measures (Key stages 2, 4 and 5)’ statistics release, there are several breakdowns by Trust characteristic. These breakdowns are relevant when discussing MAT Performance.

6.1  Academy Type

As outlined in section 4, performance measures for both multi-academy trusts and single academy trusts are broken down into types of academy. 

6.2 Years in Trusts

Performance measures for both multi-academy trusts and single academy trusts are broken down into the number of academic years the institution, that a pupil/student attends, has been part of its trust.

6.3 Size of MAT

Performance measures for multi-academy trusts are broken down into the size of the MAT that a student attends, grouped into several size classes. Size refers to the number of institutions that the MAT has at the key stage of each pupil/student. E.g. For a KS2 measure, the breakdown for a MAT size of 3 to 5 contains all KS2 pupils that attend a MAT which contains 3 to 5 KS2 institutions, regardless of how many institutions the MAT has at other key stages. 

6.4 Trust Variation

Additional information is provided showing how many MATs have a particular composition. MATs are grouped based on whether they only contain institutions at KS2, KS4 or 16 to 18, or some combination of them. MATs are also grouped based on whether they only contain converter academies or a mix of all academy types. Performance measures are not calculated for this breakdown.