Methodology

Education, children’s social care and offending: Descriptive statistics (technical note)

Published
Last updated
See all notes (1)
  1. 10 March 2022

1. Data sources and matching methodology

Education, children's social care and offending

Descriptive statistics - Technical Note

March 2022 

This technical note sets out details of the data share between the Ministry of Justice (MoJ) and Department for Education (DfE), and the matching process between the Police National Computer and National Pupil Database data. 

The technical note contains match rates from the first iteration of the DfE-MoJ data share that was carried out in 2019, however the dashboard was created using data from the second iteration of the data share that was completed in 2022. Therefore, the figures below do not directly apply to the data contained in the dashboard. 

We will be updating the technical note shortly to reflect match rates from the second iteration of the data share. 

Data sources and matching methodology

This section sets out details of the data share between the Ministry of Justice (MoJ) and Department for Education (DfE), and the matching process between the MoJ and National Pupil Database data. 

Data sources

Data from several large datasets were brought together in this data share, as permitted by the Ministry of Justice’s common law powers and various prescribed legislative data sharing powers available to DfE[1]. A brief description of the two main datasets is included below: 

National Pupil Database (NPD) – DfE

A wide range of information about pupils and students which provides evidence on educational performance and context. The data includes detailed information about pupils’ test and exam results, prior attainment, and progression between each key stage for all state schools in England. It also includes information about the characteristics of pupils in the state sector and non-maintained special schools, such as their gender, ethnicity, first language, eligibility for Free School Meals, awarding of bursary funding for 16-19-year-olds, information about Special Educational Needs, and detailed information about any absences and exclusions.

Police National Computer (PNC) – MoJ 

This dataset includes recordable offences committed, with separate entries for each offence committed by a person, although only some information (e.g. personal characteristics) will be available through the linked data. The data analysed in this report is a subset of the total number of individuals. All individuals who commit an offence are recorded on the Police National Computer (PNC), this report is based on offenders from the PNC that were successfully matched to the NPD, covering the period 2000 – 2017.

How was the data matched? 

The methodology used to match the data sources together was similar to that used in other MoJ data linking projects, such as the data share between MoJ and the Department of Work and Pension (DWP) and Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC)[2].

The data were matched using combinations of six demographic variables from the PNC and NPD: forename, middle name, surname, date of birth, gender, postcode, and the derived variable: full name. 

Matching rules were agreed between MoJ and DfE and included combinations of at least four exact matches of the common variables. The majority of data was matched on rule 1 (exact names, date of birth, postcode and gender) accounting for 64% of all matches.  In addition to full matching, partial matching was used to improve match rates when matching on forename, middle name and surname was not successful. As exact matching is very strict (either a word matches or it does not), partial matching improved match rates by including matches where the first two characters from forename, middle name or surname matched. Partial matching was also employed for Date of Birth (i.e. when date and month of birth were inverted) and postcode (i.e. by matching on the postcode sector, e.g. “SE14 5”, rather than the full postcode). 

Alias information – alternative names and dates of birth recorded for the same offender – from the PNC was also included in the data share. Previous data shares have indicated that this information plays a key role in data matching reports. As such, multiple names and postcodes were provided for some offenders. 

Match Rate

Not all offenders on the PNC were involved in the match to the National Pupil Database (NPD) as the NPD only began to record data from the 2001/02 academic year. Whilst attempting to match as many offenders on the PNC as possible, due to the limited time coverage of the NPD, it was only possible to match offenders between the ages of 10 and 32 as at December 2017. This meant the records of around 1.95 million offenders, aged between 10 and 32 years, from between 2000 and 2017 who were on the PNC were shared with DfE. Of those, around 1.51 million were matched and included in the final matched dataset after cleaning. A good match rate of around 77% was achieved. Figures in this publication are based on matched offenders only and, as a result, volumes will be lower than published statistics from individual data sources. 

Matching Results 

Multiple records for the same offender were included in the data matching exercise between the PNC and the NPD. DfE attempted to match each record separately to their data. This meant that there were five potential scenarios for each unique offender: 

  1. One PNC record match to one NPD record 
  2. One PNC record matched to many NPD records
  3. One NPD record to many PNC records 
  4. Many PNC records to many NPD records 
  5. No match between PNC and NPD 

After matching, there was a match of one PNC record to one NPD record (scenario 1) for around 57% of offenders. 

For scenario 2 and 3, the most reliable match was selected as follows: 

  1. Using matching rule: selecting the record matched on the strictest match rule. 
  2. Using data source: If multiple records shared the highest match rule, the data source was used to select a match. 
  3. Tie: If multiple records are tied on both match rule and data source, the record is not included in the final matched dataset. 

Scenario 4 and 5 were not included in the final matched dataset. 

Representativeness of the matched dataset

The 1.51 million records in the final matched Police National Computer dataset were compared against the 441,493 records shared with DfE for data matching that did not match. Overall, the matched dataset had similar characteristics to the unmatched dataset in terms of gender and age, with some noted differences for ethnicity. 

  • The matched dataset was 73% male and 27% female (excluding unknown) which was broadly in line with the unmatched dataset (76% male and 24% female).
  • The age breakdown of the matched dataset was similar to the unmatched dataset, although the matched dataset slightly under-represents older offenders and slightly over-represents young offenders. This is due to better matching rates for young offenders.

Figure 1: Age breakdown of matched dataset compared to unmatched dataset

  • Comparisons were also made between the matched and unmatched officer identified ethnicity. The comparisons in table 1 show a higher proportion of offenders from a “Black” and “Asian” background (8% and 6% of the matched data, compared to 3% and 4% of the unmatched data) and a slightly lower proportion from a “White” background.

Table 1: Officer identified ethnicity breakdown of matched data compared to unmatched data

 Matched dataUnmatched data
White85%90%
Black8%3%
Asian6%4%
Other 1%3%

Caveats when using matched data

There are a number of caveats which should be considered when using the matched data: 

  • The matched data has been produced using administrative data sources whose main purposes are not solely statistical. Therefore, as with any large recording system, the data are subject to possible errors with data entry and processing. Quality assurance procedures, including cleaning of duplicated offender entries and checks for completeness and representativeness, have been applied to the matched data 
  • The comparisons on representativeness provide some assurances that the matched data is broadly reflective of the offender cohort, but it should be made clear that this is not the full offender population.
  • The analysis in this report is based only on the final matched PNC dataset. Around 23% of offenders aged 32 and under were not uniquely matched to the NPD. Reasons for this include: 
    • They offended in England or Wales and were educated in Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland or outside of the United Kingdom
    • Different names were recorded (potentially due to the offender changing their name or reporting a different name) on the NPD and the PNC
    • They have a common set of characteristics (i.e. the same name, date of birth and/or postcode) that make it difficult to determine a unique match across the datasets.

Match rates by age

The overall match rate was around 77%, but a greater proportion of younger offenders were matched as they will have had a greater likelihood of being included in the National Pupil Database where matched data is available from 2002/03.

Figure 2: Match rates by year of birth

[1] How DfE share personal data - GOV.UK (www.gov.uk)

[2] http://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/experimental-statistics-from-the-2013-moj-dwp-hmrc-data-share

2. Descriptive analysis definitions and methodology

Descriptive analysis definitions and methodology 

Defining the total pupil cohort 

The cohorts of children within this analysis includes all pupils[1] who finished key stage 2 (KS2) in 2007/08, 2008/09 or 2009/10 and were aged ten at the start of these academic years. Therefore, this cohort has a key stage 4 (KS4) academic year of 2012/13, 2013/14 or 2014/15 amounting to approximately 1.63 million pupils. For these children, all their records from Year 1 to Year 13 (or equivalent) are included. Pupils who do not have a KS4 record are not included. (See figure 3 below.)

Pupils who attended an independent primary or secondary school have been excluded from the data as their characteristics are not recorded, except for those registered in independent AP settings. The cohorts were selected in this way to maximise data coverage and balance data availability across each of the datasets provided in the share.

Figure 3: Year group breakdown for the all-pupil cohort

Academic YearKS4 Academic Year 2014/15KS4 Academic Year 2013/14KS4 Academic Year 2012/13
2016/17Year 13  
2015/16Year 12Year 13 
2014/15Year 11Year 12Year 13
2013/14Year 10Year 11Year 12
2012/13Year 9Year 10Year 11
2011/12Year 8Year 9Year 10
2010/11Year 7Year 8Year 9
2009/10Year 6Year 7Year 8
2008/09Year 5Year 6Year 7
2007/08Year 4Year 5Year 6
2006/07Year 3Year 4Year 5
2005/06Year 2Year 3Year 4
2004/05Year 1Year 2Year 3
2003/04 Year 1Year 2
2002/03  Year 1

Results are provided for this total pupil cohort (including all children who had been cautioned or sentenced for an offence) for comparison purposes[2].

Children that appear on a school census at the end of KS2 and the end of KS4 have been included in this analysis, with allowances for those that have moved ahead or been kept behind by one or more school years. Independent AP schools have been included, however those with KS4 results at mainstream independent schools have been removed. 

The findings presented throughout this publication are the combined results of all three cohorts, with the exception of findings discussing: 

KS4 attainment: This is due to the implementation of two major reforms in 2013/14[3] which affect the calculation of KS4 performance measures data. Since the cohorts in the analysis are matched to years in the KS4 attainment data that fall either side of this reform, KS4 results for these cohorts cannot be combined to look at overall figures. Therefore, when analysing KS4 attainment, the analysis refers to the results of those with KS4 academic year 2014/15 as this provides the most recent indicator of academic achievement.

Children known to children’s social care: Full children in need (CIN) data is available from 2011/12, term 3[4]. Children are included in this CIN analysis if they have been recorded as a child in need on the 31st March in any period between the ages of 12 – 16. Those matched to earlier years in the KS4 attainment data will have less coverage than those matched to later years. For example: those with KS4 academic year 2012/13 have coverage from age 14 and above. To maximise coverage of the CIN data and avoid skewed results, analysis of children in need and children who are looked after is based on children matched to KS4 academic year 2014/15 only.

The figures for individual years can be found in the accompanying tables.

Defining the offending cohort

‘Children who had been cautioned or sentenced for an offence’ relates to all children and young people in the linked data who were in the academic years described above, and who been cautioned or sentenced for any offence recorded on the Police National Computer over the defined coverage period[5]. All cohorts in this analysis are limited to ages 10-17. This is to ensure that each child had the same amount of time to offend – if the data was not limited by age, then children born in earlier years would have more years of data available to record offences, thereby skewing the results.

The analysis has identified approximately 77,300 children who had been cautioned or sentenced for an offence, which is equivalent to 5% of the all-pupil cohort. 

As well as ‘children who had been cautioned or sentenced for an offence’, two other offending groups have been included in this analysis:

1. ‘Children who had been cautioned or sentenced for a serious violence offence’ (approximately 18,000 children). 

  • The definition of serious violence offences based broadly on the following categories of offence groups and offence types: indictable only ‘violence against the person’ offences, indictable only ‘robbery offences’, and triable either way or indictable only ‘possession of weapons offences’ [6]. See section 4 of this Technical Note for the full list of offences. 
  • Children who have been cautioned or sentenced for a serious violence offence are defined as those who have been found guilty (in-court conviction) or cautioned (out-of-court caution) for any of the offences (Section 4 in this Technical note).


‘Children whose offending had been prolific’ (approximately 12,300 children).

  • This is defined as those who are aged 10-17 and have 4 or more previous cautions or convictions, or have 8 or more cautions or convictions aged 18-20, of which 4 or more were received whilst the individual was aged between 18 and 20.[7].

Juvenile prolific offenders are defined as those who: 

  • are aged 10-17, and
  • have 4 or more previous sanctions

Young adult prolific offenders are defined as those who:

  • are aged 18-20, and
  • have 8 or more previous sanctions, of which 4 or more were received whilst the offender was aged between 18 and 20

Where a young adult does not meet the criteria for a prolific young adult offender but received 4 or more previous sanctions as a juvenile, they will then form part of the juvenile prolific cohort.

The analysis looks separately and independently at children who fall into these three offending groups. It does not consider any interactions between those who had been both cautioned or sentenced for an offence, for a serious violence offence and whose offending had been prolific. Children who have been cautioned or sentenced for a serious violence offence, and children whose offending has been prolific are considered as subsets of children who have been cautioned or sentenced for an offence. Therefore, the findings for each of these groups are not additive as individuals can be considered within more than one group.

The analysis has identified approximately 77,300 children who had been cautioned or sentenced for an offence, which is equivalent to 5% of the all-pupil cohort. Approximately 23% of the ‘children who had been cautioned or sentenced for an offence’ group are in the ‘children who had been cautioned or sentenced for a serious violence offence’ group, and 16% are in the ‘children whose offending had been prolific’ group (See figures 4 and 5). This is equivalent to 1.1% and 0.8% of the total pupil cohort respectively. 

Figure 4: The proportion of children who had been cautioned or sentenced for an offence that had also been cautioned or sentenced for a serious violence offence, and the proportion of children who had been cautioned or sentenced for an offence, for pupils matched to KS4 academic years 2012/13, 2013/14 and 2014/15 (Source: Table 1.1.1)


Figure 5: The proportion of children who had been cautioned or sentenced for an offence whose offending had also been prolific, and the proportion of children who had been cautioned or sentenced for an offence, for pupils matched to KS4 academic years 2012/13, 2013/14 and 2014/15 (Source: Table 1.1.1)

Limiting the possible time to offend

The DfE data was matched onto Police National Computer (PNC) data on a pupil level up until the end of 2017. However, in order to avoid skewing the offending data between the three sub-cohorts, we have limited the PNC records so that each cohort has an equivalent number of years of offending data. Therefore Cohort 1’s offending data is cut off past the 2016/17 academic year, Cohort 2 is cut off past the 2015/16 academic year, and Cohort 3 is cut off past the 2014/15 academic year. This means that for each cohort, the last year of offending data would be during Year 13 (or equivalent).

 

 

[1] Young people attending an independent primary or secondary school, as measure by whether they appear in the KS2 or KS4 exam data under an independent school, have been excluded from the analysis. Young people attending an “independent AP” have been included. 

[2] Offender numbers and pupil population figures quoted in this analysis may differ when analysing different education variables, since the information on these variables may not be recorded for all offenders and pupils. 

[3] The two major reforms referenced: 1) Professor Alison Wolf’s Review of Vocational Education recommendations which: restrict the qualifications counted; prevent any qualification from counting as larger than one GCSE; and cap the number of non-GCSEs included in performance measures at two per pupil, and 2) an early entry policy to only count a pupil’s first attempt at a qualification, in subjects counted in the English Baccalaureate.

[4] The CIN census was introduced in 2008/09, and initially covered a reduced 6-month period. A full year collection was introduced in 2009 – 2010, however a number of local authorities were unable to provide a complete, clean children in need return for that year. Reviews were carried out on the CIN census and resulted in some data items being removed from the 2010 – 2011 collection onward. 

[5] The data share covers offences in the period 2000 – 2017. However, to reduce the skew of the data, the offence may have been committed at any point over a defined coverage period related to the offending group’s academic year. The coverage period for the offending group with a KS2 academic year of 2007/08 is 2000 - 31 August 2015, a KS2 academic year of 2008/09 is 2000 - 31 August 2016 and a KS2 academic year of 2009/10 is 2000 - 31 August 2017. 

[6] A full list of offences included in the definition can be found in Section 3 of this Technical Note. 

[7] This definition is in line with MoJ definition of a juvenile prolific offender and a young adult prolific offender. Adult prolific offenders have not been included in this analysis as no individuals in the cohort fall into this category. For more information on defining prolific offenders, please see the below link: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/659655/prolific-offenders-2017.pdf

3. Information about the Pupil – data used

Information about the Pupil – data used 

Most of the DfE data used in the descriptive statistics analysis is taken from the school census, which is a pupil-level data collection from primary, secondary, special and state-funded alternative provision (AP) schools (pupil referral units, AP academies and AP free schools). The school census takes place three times a year; in the Autumn, Spring and Summer terms. 

Data from the Pupil Referral Unit (PRU) and the AP censuses is also included. The PRU census was a yearly Spring collection census of all state-funded AP settings which was incorporated into the school census in 2013/14. The AP census is also a yearly Spring census. Since the AP and PRU censuses are yearly census, missing termly data for Autumn and Summer terms was inferred from the Spring data collection of the same academic year, where appropriate. Additionally, some data is collected in the school census that is not collected in the AP and PRU census. Where appropriate, this missing data has been filled in from the school census.

To be aware; in most cases, where pupils are registered in two schools, the pupil’s main record from the school census was used to obtain information about the pupil. However, in some cases, existence of a dual-subsidiary record was noted, and the student flagged as attending more than one educational setting. We have incorporated information from pupil’s subsidiary records for school, Local Authority and SEN, in order to capture as much information as possible.

In addition to this, examination data was also included. This data was matched onto the school census base data at a pupil-level from the KS2 and KS4 examination data. Where duplicate results existed for students, the latest academic year was taken. If duplicates remained, the highest score was used.

Ethnicity data 

Data on a child’s ethnicity is taken from the School Census. As of 2011, information regarding ethnicity could only be provided by the child or their parent(s). 

Table 2: Ethnic group major categories are outlined below: 

Code  Ethnic Group 
AOEGAny Other Ethnic Group
ASIAAsian
BLACBlack
CHINChinese
MIXDMixed
UNCLUnclassified
WHITWhite

Table 3: Ethnic group minor categories are outlined below: 

Code  Ethnic Group 
ABANBangladeshi
AINDIndian
AOTHAny Other Asian Background
APKNPakistani
BAFRBlack African
BCRBBlack Caribbean
BOTHAny Other Black Background
CHNEChinese
MOTHAny Other Mixed Background
MWASWhite and Asian
MWBAWhite and Black African
MWBCWhite and Black Caribbean
NOBTInformation Not Yet Obtained
OOTHAny Other Ethnic Group
REFURefused
WBRIWhite British
WIRIWhite Irish
WIRTTraveller of Irish Heritage
WOTHAny Other White Background
WROMGypsy/Roma

Children known to children’s social care data

Data from the children in need (CIN) census and children who are looked after (CLA) census was also included. In sections 1, 3 and 4 of the publication, the CIN and CLA data used indicates whether a given pupil was CIN or CLA on the 31st March in a given year. This differs from the measures used in the annual publication ‘Children looked after in England including adoptions’, which looks at whether the child was recorded as being looked after on 31st March in the previous year; whether the child started being looked after during the previous year ending 31st March; and for offending specifically, whether the child had been looked after for at least 12 months in the year ending 31st March. For section 2, termly CIN and CLA datasets were used which were provided internally. This is the only piece of analysis that has used data that is not available for external users of the data share.

Special Educational Needs data

Pupils identified with Special Educational Needs (SEN) are classified as those that have a statement of SEN or Education, Health and Care (EHC) plan (or, prior to reforms introduced in September 2014, a Statement of SEN).and those who are in the SEN Support category (or, prior to reforms introduced in September 2014, School Action or School Action Plus). The period for local authorities to transfer children and young people with Statements of SEN to EHC plans started in September 2014 and ended on 31 March 2018.

Primary type of need is collected through the school census for those pupils on SEN Support, or EHC plan (or the pre-2014 equivalents). The coverage for January 2015 onwards is different to previous years. Pupils who were on School Action were not required to have a primary type of need recorded. From 2015 pupils who were on School Action who have transferred to SEN support will be recorded as having a primary type of need. This has led to an increase in the number of pupils recorded as having a primary type of need. 

There were changes to the classification of type of need in 2015: the previous code of ‘Behaviour, Emotional and Social Difficulties (BESD)’ was removed. A new code ‘Social, Emotional and Mental Health (SEMH)’ was introduced, although this was not intended to be a direct replacement. 

Table 4: Special Educational Needs categories 

Code SEN primary need 
ASD Autistic spectrum disorder 
HI Hearing impairment 
MLD Moderate learning difficulty 
MSI Multi-sensory impairment 
PD Physical disability 
PMLD  Profound & multiple learning difficulty 
SEMH  Social, emotional & mental health 
BESD  Behaviour, emotional and social difficulties 
SLCN  Speech, language & communication 
SLD Severe learning difficulty 
SPLD  Specific learning difficulty 
VI Visual impairment 
OTH Other difficulty/disability 

4. Definition of serious violence

Definition of serious violence

The definition of serious violence used in this analysis is broadly based on the following categories of offence groups and offence types: 

- Violence against the person offences, indictable only 

- Robbery offences, indictable only

- Possession of weapons offences, triable either way or indictable only

However, analysts and policy officials in the DfE and MoJ assessed the full list of all offences to ensure that the list of offences included in the definition is as exhaustive as possible – this means that some offences that fit into the above categorisation have been removed from the definition of serious violence used for the analysis, whilst some offences which do not fit into the above categorisation have been defined as serious violence for the purpose of this work. The rationale applied for omitting or incorporating offences was challenged and applied consistently in all cases. 

Table 5: Home Office offence codes used to define ‘serious violence’ 

Home Office Offence codeOffence description
00100Violence against the person
00101Murder of persons aged 1 year or over
00102Murder of infants under 1 year of age
00200Attempted murder
00301Making threats to kill
00302Conspiracy or soliciting, etc., to commit murder
00303Assisting offender by impeding his apprehension or prosecution in a case of murder
00304Intentionally encouraging or assisting commission of murder
00305Encouraging or assisting in the commission of murder believing it will be committed
00306Encouraging or assisting in the commission of one or more offences of murder believing one or more will be committed
00401Manslaughter
00402Infanticide
00403Child destruction
00501Wounding etc. with intent to do grievous bodily harm etc. or to resist apprehension
00504Attempting to choke, suffocate etc. with intent to commit an indictable offence (garrotting)
00505Using chloroform, etc., to commit or assist in committing an indictable offence
00506Burning, maiming, etc. by explosion
00507Causing, explosions or casting corrosive fluids with intent to do grievous bodily harm
00509Placing, etc. explosives in or near ships or buildings with intent to do bodily harm, etc.
00510Endangering life or causing harm by administering poison
00513Possession etc. of explosives with intent to endanger life
00514Possession of firearms etc., with intent to endanger life (Group I)
00515Possession of firearms etc. with intent to endanger life (Group II)
00516Possession of firearms etc. with intent to endanger life (Group III)
00517Using etc. firearms or imitation firearms with intent to resist arrest etc. (Group I)
00518Using etc. firearms or imitation firearms with intent to resist arrest etc. (Group II)
00519Using etc. firearms or imitation firearms with intent to resist arrest etc. (Group III)
00520Use etc. of chemical weapons
00521Use of premises or equipment for producing chemical weapons
00522Use, threat of use, production or possession of a nuclear weapon
00527Torture
00802Administering poison with intent to injure or annoy
00804Causing bodily harm by furious driving
00805Assaults on person preserving wreck
00806Assaults occasioning actual bodily harm
00833Racially aggravated wounding or inflicting grievous bodily harm (inflicting bodily injury with or without weapon)
00840Religiously aggravated malicious wounding or grievous bodily harm
00846Racially or religiously aggravated malicious wounding or grievous bodily harm (GBH)
00859Racially or religiously aggravated wounding or grievous bodily harm
03401Robbery
03402Assault with intent to rob
03410Robbery
02802Burglary in a dwelling with intent to inflict grievous bodily harm - indictable only
05601Arson endangering life
00803Setting spring guns etc. to injure trespassers
00811Possession of offensive weapons without lawful authority or reasonable excuse
00813Possessing firearm or imitation firearm at time of committing or being arrested for an offence specified in Schedule 1 of the Act   (Group I)
00814Possessing firearm or imitation firearm at time of committing or being arrested for an offence specified in Schedule 1 of the Act   (Group II)
00815Possessing firearm or imitation firearm at time of committing or being arrested for an offence specified in Schedule 1 of the Act   (Group III)
00816Possessing firearm or imitation firearm with intent to commit an indictable offence or resist arrest etc (Group I)
00817Possessing firearm or imitation firearm with intent to commit an indictable offence, or resist arrest etc (Group II)
00818Possessing firearm or imitation firearm with intent to commit an indictable offence, or resist arrest etc (Group III)
00823Possession of a firearm or imitation firearm, with intent to cause fear of violence 
(Group I)
00824Possession of a firearm or imitation firearm with intent to cause fear of violence 
(Group II)
00825Possession of a firearm or imitation firearm with intent to cause fear of violence  (Group III)
00826Having an article with a blade or point in a public place
00827Having an article with a blade or point on school premises
00828Possession of offensive weapons without lawful authority or reasonable excuse on school premises
00853Using another to look after, hide or transport a dangerous weapon - offensive weapon, knife or bladed weapon
00854Using another to look after, hide or transport a dangerous weapon - a firearm
00861Threaten with an offensive weapon in a public place
00862Threaten with a blade or sharply pointed article on school premises
00863Threaten with an offensive weapon on school premises
00864Threaten with blade/sharply pointed article in a public place
08101Possession of weapons
08103Possessing etc. firearm or ammunition without firearm certificate (Group I)
08104Possessing etc. shotgun without certificate (Group II)
08107Trading in firearms without being registered as a firearms dealer (Group I)
08108Trading in firearms without being registered as a firearms dealer 
08109Selling firearm to person without a certificate (Group I)
08110Selling firearm to person without a certificate (Group II)
08111Repairing, testing etc. firearm for person without a certificate (Group I)
08112Repairing, testing etc. firearm for person without a certificate (Group II)
08113Falsifying certificate etc. with a view to acquisition of firearm (Group I)
08114Falsifying certificate etc. with a view to acquisition of firearm (Group II)
08115Shortening a shotgun or other smooth bore gun (Group I)
08116Conversion of firearms (Group I)
08117Possessing or distributing prohibited weapons or ammunition (Group I)
08126Carrying firearm in public place etc. (Group I)
08127Carrying loaded firearm in public place etc. (Group II)
08129Trespassing with firearm or imitation firearm in a building (Group I)
08130Trespassing with firearm or imitation firearm in a building (Group II)
08135Possession of firearms by persons previously convicted of crime (Group I)
08136Possession of firearms by persons previously convicted of crime (Group II)
08137Possession of firearms by persons previously convicted of crime (Group III)
08138Supplying firearms to person denied them under Section 21 (Group I)
08139Supplying firearms to person denied them under Section 21 (Group II)
08140Supplying firearms to person denied them under Section 21 (Group III)
08142Failure to transfer firearms or ammunition in person   (Group I)
08143Failure to give notice in writing to the Chief Officer of Police of transfers involving firearms (Group I)
08144Failure by certificate holder to notify in writing Chief Officer of Police of deactivation, destruction or loss of firearms or ammunition (Group I)
08145Failure by certificate holder to notify in writing Chief Officer of Police of events taking place outside Great Britain involving firearms and ammunition (sold or otherwise disposed of, lost etc) (Group I)
08169Possession of weapons
08170Possessing or distributing prohibited weapons designed for discharge of noxious liquid etc. (Group I)
08171Possessing or distributing firearm disguised as other object (Group I)
08172Possessing or distributing other prohibited weapons
08173Offence in relation to the unlawful IMPORTATION of any weapon or ammunition of a kind mentioned in S.5(1)(a),(ab),(aba),(ac), (ad),(ae),(af) or (c) of the Firearms Act 1968
08174Offence in relation to the unlawful EXPORTATION of any weapon or ammunition of a kind mentioned in S.5(1)(a) (ab),(aba),(ac),(ad),(ae), (af) or (c) of the Firearms Act 1968
08176Selling or transferring an air weapon unlawfully
08177Carrying a loaded or unloaded or imitation firearm or air weapon in public place
08178Knowingly being concerned in activity prohibited by Parts 2, 3 or 4 of the Order with intent to evade the relevant prohibition
08179Unship / unload prohibited weapon / ammunition with intent to evade prohibition / restriction
08180Remove prohibited weapons / ammunition from their place of importation with intent to evade prohibition / restriction
08181Import prohibited weapons / ammunition with intent to evade a prohibition / restriction
08182Export prohibited weapon / ammunition with intent to evade prohibition / restriction
08183Carry / remove / deposit etc. prohibited weapons / ammunition with intent to evade a prohibition / restriction
08184Knowingly concerned in fraudulent evasion of prohibition / restriction on prohibited weapon / ammunition
08185Manufacture weapon / ammunition specified in section 5(1) of the Firearms Act 1968
08186Sell / transfer prohibited weapon / ammunition
08187Possess prohibited weapon / ammunition for sale / transfer
08188Purchase / acquire prohibited weapon / ammunition for sale / transfer
08189Offences under Explosives Precursors Regulations 2014
08190Manufacture an offensive weapon; Possess article for use in connection with conversion of imitation firearm
08191Make / sell / give as gift defectively deactivated weapon - Police and Crime Act 2017
09001Unlawful marketing of knives (selling or hiring)
09002Unlawful marketing of knives (offering or exposing to sell or hire)
09003Unlawful marketing of knives - having in possession for the purpose of sale or hire
09004Publication of any written, pictorial or other material in connection with the marketing of any knife - the material suggesting or indicating knife suitable for combat
09005Publication of any written, pictorial or other material in connection with the marketing of any knife - the material is otherwise likely to stimulate or encourage violent behaviour involving use of the knife as a weapon
05914Manufacture, possession or control of explosives under suspicious circumstances
05915Possessing or making an explosive substance, a noxious or dangerous thing, a machine, engine or instrument with intent to commit an offence under the Offences against the Person Act 1861
06906Unauthorised possession in prison of knife or offensive weapon

 

© Crown copyright 2022

This publication (not including logos) is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned.

To view this licence:

visit          www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 

email  psi@nationalarchives.gsi.gov.uk

write to          Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London, TW9 4DU

About this publication:

Department for Education enquiries hop.statistics@education.gov.uk

Ministry of Justice enquiries  statistics.enquiries@justice.gov.uk 

download            www.gov.uk/government/publications