Permanent exclusion rate definition
A permanent exclusion refers to a pupil who is excluded and who will not come back to that school (unless the exclusion is overturned). This data only includes permanent exclusions which have been upheld by the governing body or Independent Review Panel (IRP), and not those which are still ongoing. The permanent exclusion rate is calculated as the number of permanent exclusions divided by the number of pupils (x100). A rate of 0.01 would be equivalent to 1 permanent exclusion for every 10,000 pupils.
Note on data coverage over the pandemic
While permanent exclusions and suspensions were possible throughout the 2019/20 and 2020/21 academic years, national restrictions will have had an impact on the numbers presented and caution should be taken when comparing across years.
The disciplinary powers that schools currently have, including suspension and permanent exclusion, remained in place throughout the COVID-19 outbreak. The statutory guidance on the suspension and permanent exclusion of pupils from local-authority-maintained schools, academies and pupil referral units is clear all decision must be lawful, rational, reasonable, fair and proportionate. Permanent exclusion should only be used as a last resort.
Permanent exclusions have increased in comparison to the previous year
There were 3,100 permanent exclusions in autumn term 2022/23, a rate of 0.04, equivalent to 4 permanent exclusions for every 10,000 pupils.
This is an increase compared to 1,700 and 2,100 in autumn terms 2020/21 and 2021/22 respectively, but remains slightly lower than pre-pandemic levels (3,200 in autumn term 2019/20). While permanent exclusions and suspensions were possible throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, the restrictions in place over this period will have had varying impacts on the number of permanent exclusions in each term and caution should be taken when comparing across years. The table below shows this impact, in particular, the 2019/20 summer term and also the 2020/21 spring term where the number of permanent exclusions decreased heavily.
Data shows that permanent exclusions are typically higher in autumn term each year than the subsequent spring and summer terms, however in 2021/22 this trend was not visible with small increases each term.
The rate of permanent exclusions varies by school type
The number and rate of permanent exclusions is highest in secondary, making up 86% of permanent exclusions in autumn 2022/23, with a rate of 0.07 or 7 permanent exclusions in every 10,000 pupils. While the number of permanent exclusions is very low in special schools, it remains higher than in primary schools.
Although the rates of permanent exclusions in all school phases have increased since the pandemic, rates are now similar to pre-pandemic in all but special schools.
In primary schools, the rate of permanent exclusions in autumn 2022/23 was 0.01, the same as in the pre-pandemic autumn term 2019/20. In secondary schools, the rate of 0.07 was slightly lower than pre-pandemic (0.08). In special schools, the rate of 0.03 was slightly higher than pre-pandemic (0.02).
The number of permanent exclusions has increased across all school types
Compared to the previous autumn term, permanent exclusions
- increased for secondary pupils (+48%)
- increased for primary pupils (+67%)
- increased for special school pupils (+96%)
Prior to 2020/21, a single reason could be recorded for each suspension and permanent exclusion. From 2020/21, up to three reasons could be recorded. These reasons were recorded without weighting or prioritisation. As such, the sum of the number of reasons will not match the total number of suspensions or permanent exclusions from 2020/21.
Further, the following new reasons for suspensions and permanent exclusions were added from 2020/21
- Use or threat of use of an offensive weapon or prohibited item
- Abuse against sexual orientation and gender identity
- Abuse relating to disability
- Inappropriate use of social media or online technology
- Wilful and repeated transgression of protective measures in place to protect public health
As multiple reasons could be recorded, the table below and underlying data refer to a total of 4,300 reasons given for exclusion in autumn 2022/23, this relates to the reasons given for the 3,100 permanent exclusions that occurred overall.
The most common reason recorded for permanent exclusions was persistent disruptive behaviour. There were 1,518 permanent exclusions where this reason was recorded, 49% of all permanent exclusions. This was followed by physical assault against a pupil, with 720 permanent exclusions (23%) including this reason, and verbal abuse or threatening behaviour against an adult, with 563 permanent exclusions (18%) including this reason.