Financial year 2023-24

School funding statistics

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Introduction

This publication provides statistics on school revenue funding from financial year 2010 to 2011 through to 2024 to 2025.

The aim is to provide an overview of trends in school funding over recent years, as well as detailed information about funding allocations for individual schools for 2023 to 2024.


Headline facts and figures - 2023-24

The total amount of funding allocated to English schools for 5-16 year old pupils has grown since 2010-11 as the total pupil population has also grown.

In cash terms, the total funding allocated to schools through the grants covered in this report is £59.5 billion in 2024-25, an increase of 70% compared to the £35.0 billion allocated in 2010-11.

On a per-pupil basis the total funding allocated to schools for 5-16 year old pupils, in cash terms, in 2024-25 was £7,690, a 49% increase compared to £5,180 allocated per pupil in 2010-11.

When adjusted for inflation, funding per pupil was broadly flat between 2010-11 and 2015-16 at around £7,200 in 2023-24 prices. It then fell by 3.9% over 2016-17 and 2017-18, but subsequently increased by 1.2% over 2018-19 and 2019-20. Since then, funding has increased by 7.9% (after adjusting for inflation) over the course of the following five years, reaching £7,570 in 2024-25 (in 2023-24 prices).

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About this release

In this publication

Throughout this annual release, the time periods referred to are financial years unless otherwise stated. The shorthand “2023-24” is used to denote the 2023 to 2024 financial year (i.e. the period from April 2023 to March 2024), and similarly for other years. The shorthand “2023/24” is used to denote the 2023 to 2024 academic year (i.e. the period from September 2023 to August 2024), and similarly for other years.

This publication contains two sets of data:

  1. School revenue funding for 5-16 year olds for 2010-11 to 2024-25. This time series data shows national levels of revenue funding for primary and secondary pupils aged 5-16 in state-funded schools in England. This includes mainstream schools, special schools, pupil referral units, local authority alternative provision and non-maintained special schools. Revenue funding is that which is provided to ensure schools have the money needed to deliver their day-to-day functions over the course of each year, and does not include capital funding provided to enable schools to maintain and improve the condition of their buildings and grounds. The data is presented in both cash terms and after being adjusted for inflation. Much of this data is compiled from funding allocation information previously published on the gov.uk website.
  2. School funding allocations for 2023-24. This data shows the total funding that has been allocated to each individual mainstream school through several different funding streams, including the schools block of the dedicated schools grant and several other grants. The schools block funding elements of this data have not previously been published, but data on funding through the other grants has (see later in this section).

All this data relates to the funding that is allocated to local authorities and state-funded schools in England by the Department for Education (DfE) in each year.

This is not the same as the amount of money that is spent in a year by schools and local authorities. Other official statistics reports published by the department provide information on local authority and school spending on education, including academies and children and young people's services. These can be found on the local authority and school finance page.

The Methodology section provides much more detailed information about each of the datasets.

Feedback

This is the fifth edition of this annual statistics report and we are keen to receive feedback on the data presented. If you have any feedback or comments on this publication please contact us at:

schoolfunding.statistics@education.gov.uk.

School revenue funding for 5-16 year olds for 2010-11 to 2024-25

Introduction

This section presents time series data on revenue funding for primary and secondary pupils aged 5-16 in England.

The funding covers all state-funded schools: that is, primary and secondary maintained schools and academies; special schools; pupil referral units (including alternative provision academies and free schools); local authority alternative provision; and non-maintained special schools.

For mainstream schools, funding covers pupils in reception through to year 11.

Important note on GDP deflators

To calculate inflation-adjusted school funding figures in this report, we use the GDP deflator, for which the most recent figures were published in January 2024 by HM Treasury (HMT).

The GDP deflator is the broadest measure of inflation in the domestic economy. It is commonly used to measure price changes in public sector expenditure and is the most suitable inflation measure for this national-level time series. Price inflation experienced by individual schools may be different.

The GDP deflator series displays atypical year-on-year movement in the data for years 2020-21 and 2021-22, which has arisen as a result of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. The latest deflator series indicates like-for-like price increases of about 4.6% over the two year period overall, equivalent to increases of 2.3% in each year.

Given the atypical year-on-year movement in the deflator data, we have considered inflation-adjusted changes over that two-year period as a whole, rather than for each of the individual years, and the commentary in this publication is written from that standpoint.

Coverage of the figures

The following funding elements in 2024-25 are included in the figures:

  • Dedicated schools grant (including the schools block, most of the high needs block, the teachers’ pay additional grant, safety valve funding, and the central school services block (CSSB); but excluding the early years block and post-16 funding in the high needs block);
  • Pre-16 high needs place funding in non-maintained special schools, special and alternative provision free schools;
  • Pupil premium;
  • Early career framework grant.

This coverage has been chosen both to capture core funding for schools and to ensure the series is as comparable over time as possible, despite changes to the specific grants allocated to schools over the years shown.

In this publication, the figures for years 2010-11 to 2023-24 are based on the latest funding allocations that have been issued to schools and local authorities. The figures for 2023-24 in last year’s report were partly based on the budgets that were agreed and announced as part of the 2021 Spending Review and 2022 Autumn Statement; they have now been updated with allocations data. The figures for 2024-25 are based on a combination of published funding allocations, the budget settlements agreed at the 2021 Spending Review and later announcements including 2022 Autumn Statement, and some estimates of small grant and high needs spending.

Note that the figures do not include any funding allocated to schools to support them with responding to the COVID-19 pandemic. More information on funding provided to schools for the pandemic can be found in the Annex.

More detailed information on the funding covered by the figures in this section can be found in the Methodology section.

Total funding 2010-11 to 2024-25

The total amount of funding allocated to English schools for 5-16 year olds is closely linked to the number of pupils in attendance, and has grown since 2010-11 as the total pupil population has also grown.

In cash terms, the total funding allocated to schools through the grants listed above was £59.5 billion in 2024-25, an increase of 70% compared to the £35.0 billion allocated in 2010-11.

Per-pupil funding 2010-11 to 2024-25

On a per-pupil basis the total funding to be allocated to schools for 5-16 year olds, in cash terms, in 2024-25 is £7,690, a 49% increase compared to £5,180 allocated per pupil in 2010-11.

After adjusting for inflation, funding per pupil was broadly flat between 2010-11 and 2015-16 at about £7,200 in 2023-24 prices.

It then fell by 3.9% over 2016-17 and 2017-18, but subsequently increased by 1.2% over 2018-19 and 2020-21. Since then, funding has increased by 7.9% (after adjusting for inflation) over the course of the following five years, reaching £7,570 in 2024-25 (in 2023-24 prices).

Funding for 2022-23 to 2024-25

Taking account of some small differences in coverage, these figures are comparable to the three-year school funding settlement announced in the 2021 Spending Review, which covers the financial years 2022-23 to 2024-25.

The 2021 Spending Review confirmed an additional £4.7 billion by 2024-25 for the core schools budget in England, over and above schools settlement for 2022-23 secured at the 2019 Spending Round. The 2022 Autumn Statement confirmed an additional £2.0 billion in funding for 2024-25, on top of the original 2024-25 settlement announced at the 2021 Spending Review. In 2023, we announced additional funding via the teachers’ pay additional grant (TPAG) of £482.5 million in 2023-24 and £827.5 million in 2024-25, for mainstream schools and high needs providers, for mainstream schools and high needs providers. This means that core schools funding will reach over £59.6 billion in 2024-25.

The figures for 2024-25 do not include further funding that the Department has committed to providing to support schools with increases to employer contribution rates to the Teachers’ Pensions Scheme from April 2024. This funding has not been included because, at time of publication, allocations have not been announced. This funding will, however, be included in the 2024-25 figures in next year’s edition of the report.

School funding allocations for 2023-24

Coverage of the data

The data in this section is presented in two ways.

First, if you are interested in seeing the data for an individual school, the easiest way to access this is using the table tool: this can be found higher up this page by selecting ‘Explore data and files’ and then ‘Create your own tables’.

Alternatively, data for all schools can be accessed by downloading the data file (which is in Excel format) associated with this release entitled ‘School funding allocations for 2023-24 (Excel version)’. This can be found by selecting ‘Explore data and files’ and then ‘List of all supporting files’.

The data shows the total funding that has been allocated to each individual mainstream school through several different funding streams for 2023-24. This covers funding allocated to mainstream schools for their running costs for pupils aged 5-16, that was provided through some of the funding streams covered in the other main section of this report, “School revenue funding for 5-16 year olds for 2010-11 to 2024-25”:

  • Core funding through the schools block of the dedicated schools grant;
  • Pupil premium.

The school funding allocations data also includes several other funding streams for schools that are not included in the figures in the previous section. This funding is provided to schools for specific functions and pupils of other ages in attendance. Detailed school allocations through these funding streams have been previously published for 2023-24, but they are included here to show schools’ data in a single place:

  • Universal infant free school meals (UIFSM);
  • PE and sport premium;
  • Coronavirus (COVID-19) recovery premium funding;
  • Mainstream schools additional grant;
  • National Tutoring Programme funding.

Funding years

For core funding, the data shows financial year 2023-24 allocations for local authority maintained schools, and academic year 2023/24 allocations for academies (including free schools). This is because these are the time periods for which maintained schools and academies receive their budgets.

For the other grants, the data primarily shows allocations for financial year 2023-24. More information about this data and the different elements of funding presented is provided in the Methodology section.

Consistency with the 2010-11 to 2024-25 time series data

The totals of the figures in this section do not match those for 2023-24 shown in the time series dataset, for several reasons.

First, the figures presented in this section relate to mainstream schools only, whereas the time series dataset also includes funding for age 5-16 pupils attending other types of institution, such as special schools, non-maintained special schools and alternative provision settings.

Second, these school-level figures for 2023-24 include some funding (the PE and sport premium and universal infant free school meals) which are not included in the time series, for the reasons explained above.

Schools included in the data

Please note that schools listed in the data are as at 31 March 2023. The figures do not reflect where schools have changed their name, opened, closed, or have been subject to other changes since that date.

Other publications

For years prior to 2019-20, these data were published by ESFA in a separate annual report ‘Schools block funding allocations’. However, those previous reports presented data for core funding only. The more recent school funding statistics reports also include data on schools’ allocations for the pupil premium, UIFSM and other grants as listed above.

Comparison with national funding formula data

The figures presented here are the funding schools received in 2023-24. These are not the same as illustrative allocations under the national funding formula (NFF) in 2023-24 that the DfE has previously published.

The NFF is a single, national formula which calculates an illustrative allocation for all mainstream schools in England based mainly on their pupils’ needs and characteristics. However, schools’ NFF allocations for 2023-24 were in most cases not exactly the same as the funding they actually received.

For each local authority in England, the schools NFF calculates overall per-pupil amounts at primary and secondary level, which are then multiplied by the latest pupil numbers to give a total allocation to the authority. Each local authority then determines schools’ final allocations for the year through setting a local funding formula.

It is schools’ final funding as indicated by their authority’s local formula which is shown in this report.

Types of schools

The data shows figures for 20,181 mainstream schools in England. Of these, 10,624 are maintained schools, meaning that they are overseen by the local authority, and 9,557 are academies, meaning they operate independently of local authority control and receive their funding directly from the ESFA.

Core funding

The basic entitlement factor in authorities’ local formula gives every school a basic amount of funding for every pupil, and authorities could specify different per-pupil amounts for primary age pupils, for pupils in key stage 3 (years 7 to 9), and for pupils in key stage 4 (years 10 and 11).

Differences between schools’ basic entitlement funding reflect where they had different numbers of pupils and where their respective local authorities decided to set different per-pupil rates in their 2023-24 local formulae.

In their local formula, authorities could also choose to use several other ‘pupil-led factors’ – these are factors where the amount of funding a school receives depends on the number of pupils with appropriate characteristics that attend the school. Descriptions of each factor can be found in the Methodology section.

Figure 2 shows the percentage of schools receiving funding in 2023-24 through each of these other pupil-led factors.

Differences in the amount of funding that schools received through the pupil-led factors in 2023-24 were due to several reasons, such as: where schools had different numbers of pupils who were eligible to attract funding through the factor, and where the local authority set different per-pupil rates in their local formula.

Further information is available

The DfE already publishes a large amount of information about funding allocated to schools. This section indicates where some of this further information can be found.

National funding formula for schools

Since 2018-19, school funding has been distributed according to a formula based on the individual needs and characteristics of every school in England. In 2023-24, the national funding formula (NFF) was used to determine the total schools block funding for each local authority, but local authorities continued to be responsible for distributing that money between the schools in their area using a locally-agreed formula. The school-level figures presented in this report are mainstream schools’ final funding allocations, calculated using their respective local formulae. More information about the schools NFF in 2023-24 can be found on the DfE website. In many cases the final allocations presented here will differ slightly from the NFF figures for 2023-24, including because the latter are based on schools’ pupil counts and characteristics from an earlier period (as explained in more detail in the school-level chapter).

Pupil premium

Details of pupil premium funding to schools in 2023-24 can be found on the allocations and conditions of grant page.

PE and sport premium

Details of PE and sport premium funding allocated in 2023-24 can be found on the conditions of grant page.

Universal infant free school meals

More information about universal infant free school meals funding for academic year 2023/24 can be found on the UIFSM allocations page.

Coronavirus (COVID-19) recovery premium funding

Details of recovery premium funding to schools in 2023-24 can be found on the allocations and conditions of grant page.

National tutoring programme funding

Details of school-led tutoring grant funding to schools in 2023-24 can be found on the allocations page.

Mainstream schools additional grant

More information about the funding provided through the mainstream schools additional grant in 2023-24 can be found through the methodology page.

Teachers’ pay additional grant

Details of teachers’ pay additional grant funding to schools in 2023-24 can be found on the guidance page.

Data on school spending

While this report focuses on funding provided for schools, the department already publishes official statistics reports on how schools and local authorities spent their funding on education, children's services and social care. These can be found on the local authority and school finance page.

Other data

Data on trends in school spending is published by the IFS as part of their annual report on all education spending, but is not directly comparable to our time series on funding, primarily due to different coverage. Their 2023 report can be found on the IFS website.

Public Expenditure Statistical Analysis (PESA) data is published by HM Treasury and can be found on their PESA page.

Annex: COVID-19 funding from 2020-21 to 2024-25

Introduction

Schools faced additional pressures as a result of COVID-19. The Government responded with a range of funding measures, targeted towards supporting schools’ response to COVID-19.

Most of the COVID-19 funding measures provided since 2020-21 have now ended. A small number related to education recovery remain in financial years 2023-24 and 2024-25 as we continue supporting schools with managing the longer-term impact of the pandemic. 

The data presented in the first section of this report, school revenue funding from 2010-11 to 2024-25, does not include the additional funding allocated to schools to support them through COVID-19. This is because including time-limited funding would give rise to inconsistencies in the time series.

However, the data in the second section of this report, on schools’ individual funding allocations for 2023-24, does include two funding streams provided to schools to support their COVID-19 response: recovery premium funding and the national tutoring programme (further information on the scope of the two datasets is provided in the relevant commentary sections).

Future funding beyond the 2024-25 financial year for any additional recovery support will be decided at the next spending review. In future editions of these statistics, we will not include a separate annex on COVID-19 funding, but will mention any such funding in the commentary.

This annex gives more detail on the COVID-19 funding provided to schools.

COVID-19 funding for schools

Schools in England continue to be provided with some additional funding, over and above core funding, to support their response to the pandemic. 

This summary covers COVID-19 funding made available to schools in the 2022/23 and 2023/24 academic years. 

Funding streams are detailed below. Most streams of funding, particularly those focused on reimbursing exceptional costs, have now ended. The remaining funding is recovery focused: the National Tutoring Programme (NTP) and the recovery premium funding.

National Tutoring Programme (NTP)

For the NTP, schools were allocated £109 million for 2020/21, £485 million for 2021/22 and £349 million for 2022/23. The Department has provided a further £149 million to schools for the NTP in the 2023/24 academic year. Part of the spending for the 2023/24 academic year will fall in the first five months of the 2024-25 financial year.

Schools can use their funding allocation to provide tutoring via any of the three tuition routes established in academic year 2020/21: tuition partners, academic mentors and school-led tutoring.

Allocations have been calculated on the basis of the number of pupils eligible for the pupil premium (PP). In 2021/22 and 2022/23, mainstream schools received £162 per PP eligible pupil, with other schools receiving £423 per PP eligible pupil. In 2023/24, mainstream schools are receiving £67.50 per PP eligible pupil, with other schools receiving £176.25 per PP eligible pupil. 

Recovery premium funding 

Over £300 million of funding for schools was allocated in the 2021/22 academic year via the recovery premium, to support pupils whose education was impacted by COVID-19.

This funding stream focuses on PP eligible pupils and pupils in specialist settings, because of the greater disruption the pandemic has had on these pupils.

Allocations:

  • £145 per pupil in mainstream schools;
  • £290 per pupil in special schools and special units within mainstream schools.

A ‘floor’ ensures that a primary school receives at least £2,000 and a secondary school receives at least £6,000.

The recovery premium has been extended for the 2022/23 and 2023/24 academic years with £1 billion allocated across the two years. Part of the spending for the 2023/24 academic year will fall in the first five months of the 2024-25 financial year. 

Recovery premium allocations were calculated on a per pupil basis, based on the following rates:

Mainstream education:

  • £145 per pupil in primary schools;
  • £276 per pupil in secondary schools.

For other eligible schools, including special education units in mainstream schools, the rate is double the mainstream rate (£290 per primary pupil and £552 per secondary pupil).

Discontinued COVID-19 funding streams

Further information on funding streams related to COVID-19 has which have been discontinued can be found in the Schools Funding Statistics release for 2022-23.

Help and support

Methodology

Find out how and why we collect, process and publish these statistics.

Official statistics

These are Official Statistics and have been produced in line with the Code of Practice for Official Statistics.

This can be broadly interpreted to mean that these statistics are:

  • managed impartially and objectively in the public interest
  • meet identified user needs
  • produced according to sound methods
  • well explained and readily accessible

Find out more about the standards we follow to produce these statistics through our Standards for official statistics published by DfE guidance.

Our statistical practice is regulated by the Office for Statistics Regulation (OSR).

OSR sets the standards of trustworthiness, quality and value in the Code of Practice for Statistics that all producers of official statistics should adhere to.

You are welcome to contact us directly with any comments about how we meet these standards. Alternatively, you can contact OSR by emailing regulation@statistics.gov.uk or via the OSR website.

Contact us

If you have a specific enquiry about School funding statistics statistics and data:

Schools and Funding Analysis Division

Email: schoolfunding.statistics@education.gov.uk
Contact name: Paul Lucas

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